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Chapter 6

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Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 237
Maryam Ficociello

Chapter 6 Networks and Collaboration Q1. Why should I care about Networks Networks and Collaboration Collaboration: when two or more people work together to achieve a common goal, result or product - Collaboration involves coordination and communication and often makes use of computer networks - The effectiveness of a collaborative effort is driven by 4 factors:  Communication skills and culture  Communication systems  Content management  Workflow control Communication systems: email, virtual private networks, instant messaging, and more sophisticated communications systems, dependant on the network technology available in an organization - Content management systems track and report data such as who made what changes, when and why Workflow: a process or procedure by which content is created, edited, used and disposed - Workflow focuses on delivering a good or a service internally, to other employees in the organization - Workflow specifies a particular ordering of tasks and includes processes like handling rejected changes as well as for dealing with exceptions Network Externalities Network Externality: the larger the number of people using a network, the more valuable the network becomes - Important to understand the Global Positioning System Global Positioning System (GPS): this uses a collection of dozens of satellites orbiting the Earth that transmit precise microwave signals. A GPS receiver can calculate its position by measuring the distance between itself and several of the satellites Q2. What is a Computer Network? Network: A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines Transmission Media: Physical media such as copper cable and optical fibre(glass fibre) cable or wireless media transmitting light or radio frequencies (including cellular and satellite systems) which transmit electronic signals Chapter 6 Networks and Collaboration Local Area Network (LAN): A network that connects computers that reside in a single geographic location o the premises of the company that operates the LAN. The number of connected computers can range from two to several hundred - With LAN, an organization can place communications lines wherever it wants because all lines reside on its premises Wide Area Network (WANs): A network that connects computers located at different geographic locations - If a company has offices located in Vancouver and Toronto, it must contract with communications vendor that is licensed by the govt and already has lines or authority to run new lines between the two cities Internet or internet: When spelled with a small i, a private network of networks. When spelled with a capital I, the public network known as the Internet - Internet is a network or networks . Internets connect LANs, WANs and other internets - `the Internet` `is the collection of networks that you use when you send email or access a website Protocol: A set of rules that two communicating devices follow. - Protocol provides seamless flow Q3. What are the Components of a LAN? Switch: A special purpose computer that receives and transmits messages on the LAN - Each device on LAN has a hardware component called a network interface card (NIC) Network Interface Card (NIC): A hardware component on each device on a network (computer, printer etc) that connects the devices circuitry to the communications line. The NIC works together in each device to implement layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/ IP-OSI hybrid protocol Onboard NIC: A NIC built into the computer Media Access Control (MAC) Address: Also called the physical address. A permanent address given to each network interface card at the factory. This address enables the device to access the network via a level-2 protocol. By agreement among computer manufacturers, MAC addresses are assigned in such a way that no two NIC devices will ever have the same MAC address Unshielded Twisted Pair: A type of cable used to connect the computers, printers, switches, and other devices on a LAN. A UTP cable has four pairs of twisted wire. A device called an RJ45 connector is used to connect the UTP cable into NIC devices - Most connections are made using the unshielded twisted pair Chapter 6 Networks and Collaboration Optical Fibres Cables: A type of cable used to connect the computers printers, switches and other devices on a LAN. The signals on such cables are light rays and they are reflected inside the glass core of the optical fibre cable. The core is surrounded by a cladding to contain the light signals and the cladding in turn, is wrapped with an outer layer to protect it - Optical fibre cables use special connectors called ST and SC connectors The IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet, Protocol - IEEE = Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers –they sponsor committees that create and publish protocols and other standards - The most popular protocol for LANs is the IEEE 802.3 protocol IEEE 802.3 protocol: This standard, also called Ethernet, is a network protocol that operates at Layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture. Ethernet, the world’s most popular LAN protocol is used on WANs as well Ethernet: Another name for IEEE 802.3 protocol, Ethernet is a network protocol that operates at Layers 1 and 2 of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture. Ethernet, the world’s most popular LAN protocol is used on WANs as well - Ethernet specifies hardware characteristics such as which wire carries which signals 10/100/1000 Ethernet: products conform to the 802.3 specification and allow for transmission at a rate of 10,100, 1000 mbps (megabits per second) - Most computers today are equipped with an onboard NIC that supposed what is called 10/100/1000 Ethernet - For communications equipment, k= 1,000 , M=1,000,000 and G= 1,000,000,000 - Communication speeds are expressed in bits and memory sizes are in bytes Wireless LANs Wireless NIC (WNIC): Devices that enable wireless networks by communicating with wireless access points. Such devices can be cards that slide into the PCMA slot or they can be built in. WNICs operate according to the 802.11 protocol - 802.11n protocol is faster and allows speeds of up to 248 mbps—other names for wireless LANs are “802.11” or “Wi-Fi” Access Points (AP): - Wireless LANs require one or more access points - Coverage of a wireless access point can be from 40 to 100 meters –repeaters and reflectors are what is used to amplify and reflect signals to extend the range Chapter 6 Networks and Collaboration Q4. What do I need to know about connecting to the internet? Router: A special purpose computer that moves network traffic from one node on a network to another Internet service provider (ISP): The ISP has three important functions 1. Provides a computer with a legitimate internet address 2. Serves as your gateway to the internet –passes communications back and forth between the user and the Internet 3. ISPs help pay for the internet – it collects money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on the users’ behalf - Important note * the web and the internet are not the same. The web is a subset of the internet, consisting of sites, and users that process HTTP Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP): A 5 layer protocol used to process web pages Browsers: A program that processes the HTTP protocol; receives, displays and processes HTML documents and transmits responses Names and Addresses - The last letters in any domain name are referred to as the top level domain (TLD)  For example, www.canada.ca , the TLD for this is “.ca” indicating that it is a Canadian site Uniform Resource Locator (URL): It is an address on the internet that is stated in a way humans can remember IP Address: the internet address given by four numbers, each separated by a period - An IP address is a logical address and not a physical address (like MAC or NIC) Obtaining an IP address - 2 kinds of IP addresses exist—Public IP address ( assigned to ISP and major institutions in blocks by ICANN) and a private IP address (used in private networks and internets, controlled by
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