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Chapter 11

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Business Administration
BUS 237
Maryam Ficociello

Chapter 11 Notes Q1. How can information Systems be acquired? - Customizing - Most applications are licensed. Some licenses have a fixed term while others have none - 4 basic methods for acquiring software applications: (1) Buy it and use it as is (2) Buy it and customize it (3) Rent of lease it (4) Build It yourself - Acquiring software applications is the same as acquiring information systems. However, acquiring new software is not the same as acquiring new information systems - Acquiring information systems involves incorporating the software into current technological infrastructure and integrating the software into the data and procedures people use to make things happen in an organization Q2. What are Projects, what is IT project management, and what does PMBOK mean? Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): provides project managers, sponsors, and team leaders with a large array of accepted project management techniques and practices IT projects: Projects of all shapes and sizes that renew and adapt IT infrastructure - Examples of IT projects include installation of new email application, a customer relationship management system, or an enterprise resource planning system - IT projects affect data, people and procedures Information technology project management (ITPM): The collection of techniques that project managers use to plan, coordinate and complete IT projects - Tools of ITPM work breakdown structures, budgeting methods, graphical scheduling methods such as PERT (Program evaluation review technique) - PMBOK suggests that there are 5 process groups in any project: initiating, planning, executing, controlling and monitoring and closing - SDLC is often used to describe IT projects - Each process group is related one of the 9 project knowledge areas: integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management human resource management, communications management, risk management and procurement management - The ability to communicate with technical and business oriented people about project objectives and challenges is the key skill for a successful manage Project Management professionals (PMPs): Individual certified by product management institute as having product management skills Chapter 11 Notes Q3. Why are IT projects so risky? - All projects are risky - Success rate of IT projects was roughly two out of three or 66% - The lack of a good model is therefore an important risk to recognize in IT projects - Monitoring projects is another challenge for IT projects - IT project risks include, lack of experience in the team, lack of support from top management, lack of participation from system users, unclear and uncertain project requirements, a high level of technical complexity and changes in the project environment IT project risk: Structural risk, volatility risk, and project process; performance, knowledge resources, organizational support, project management practices and both process and product performance - The model of “impact of risks on IT projects”, the model shows two pathways that the authors describe as the forces of evil—which include structural risk, volatility risk and project process performance and forces of good in IT projects—which includes knowledge resources, organizational support, project management practices and both process and product performance (all the relationships among these items are positive) - When volatility risk is high, project process performance tends to be lower - When knowledge resources are high , there is a tendency to observe higher levels of organizational support and higher levels of project management (PM) practice Q4. What are systems Analysis and design, and SDLC? Systems analysis and design: The process of creating and maintaining information systems. It is sometimes called systems development - Systems analysis and design is sometimes called process of creating and maintaining information systems - Systems development requires coordinated team work by both specialists and non- specialists with business knowledge Agile methods: Development methods such as rapid application development (RAD), object- oriented systems development (OOD) and extreme programming (XP) The systems development Life cycle (SDLC) Systems development life cycle (SDLC): The classical process used to develop information systems. These basic tasks of systems development are combined into the following phases: system definition, requirements analysis, component design, implementation and system maintenance (fix or enhance) - 5 phase process: 1. System definition 2. Requirement analysis 3. Component design 4. Implementation 5. System maintenance Chapter 11 Notes System definition phase: The first phase in SDLC, in which developers with the help of eventual users, define the new system’s goals and scope, assess its feasibility, form a project team and plan the project Maintenance Phase: Last part of SDLC, which starts the process all over again Step 1: Defining Systems - Assess its feasibility and plan the project - Someone from the IS department leads the initial team, but the members of that initial team are both users and IS professionals Define System Goals and Scope - IS exist to facilitate an organization’s competitive strategy by supporting business processes or by improving decision making - At this step, the development team defines the goal and purpose of the new system in terms of these purposes Assess Feasibility - 4 dimensions to feasibility: cost, schedule, technical and organizational - Cost and schedule feasibility are only an approximate - Technical feasibility refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system - Organizational feasibility concerns whether the new system fits within the organization’s customs, culture, charter or legal requirements Step 2: Requirements Analysis - Once a project is deemed feasible, next step is to form the project team and develop requirements - Analysis and design is often completed by business analysts and system analysts Business Analysts: Analysts who develop the business case for a newly proposed system and develop the requirements for the system - Business analysts focus on analysis of current system and procedures System analysts: IS
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