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Canada (161,660)
BUS 237 (192)
Maryam Ali (24)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Hardware & Software.pdf

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Business Administration
BUS 237
Maryam Ali

Chapter 4 Hardware & Software June-05-12 2:25 PM History Early Computers (1939-1952) • ENIAC • Large, complex,expensive • Only one user • Housed at universities Mainframes (1952-Present) • Digital, used by business & gov't • 1st gen vacuum tube • 2nd gen transistors, faster, smaller, reliable • 3rd gen operating systems,multiprocessing • Designed for fast processing, mass storage, still used today Microcomputers (1975-Present) • Microprocessorincorporated central processing unit (CPU) • short-termmemoryin integrated circuits (ICs) • Monitors,keyboards, mouse, floppy disks, software Networking PC (1984-Present) • Local area networks (LAN) • Shared access to data, printers, etc. Info Tech Principles • Technologykeeps advancing, Moore's Law ○ cheap access to high quality resources • Small is powerful ○ Trend toward smaller and more powerful • The network is most important ○ Value of info tech measured in power of network that can be accessed with machine Hardware  Consists of electronic componentsthat input, process, output, store data Motherboard • Electronic circuitry, means of connecting hardware together • CPU, main memory,buses, ports, etc. are connected here • CPU, main memory,buses, ports, etc. are connected here Central Processing Unit (CPU) • "brain" of computer • Selects instructions, processesdata, performs comparisons,store results of operation in memory • Factors: ○ Speed ○ Cache memory Main Memory • Contains program instructions • Contains operating system (OS) instructions • Not big enough to fit all data • Memoryswapping ○ loading memoryin chunks when needed, and swapping with unneeded stuff Storage • Random Access Memory(RAM) ○ Volatile, temporary,gone w/o power ○ Working memory • Read Only Memory(ROM) ○ Non-volatile,stays w/o power ○ Used to boot computer • Magnetic disks ○ Hard drive ○ Floppy disk • Optical disks ○ CDs, DVDs, etc • Flash memory ○ Card/device(USB) Specialfunctioncards • Output hardware, e.g. Video display, printers, etc. • Storage hardware, e.g. Magnetic disks Computer Data • Bits ○ binary digits which represent data ○ Either 0 or 1 • Byte ○ 8-bits ○ Measure sizes of data ○ Kilobyte(K)1024bytes ○ Megabyte(MB)1024K ○ Gigabyte (GB) 1024MB ○ Terabyte(TB)1024GB Computer Function To run a program: 1. CPU transfer program/datafrom disk to main memory 2. Moveinstr
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