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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 on Individual Behavior, Personality and Values.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 2 Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values MARS Model of Individual Behavior Motivation - Personality - Values - Self-concept Ability - Perceptions Individual - Emotions and Role Behavior Attitudes Perceptions and Results - Stress Situational Factors Employee Motivation - Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior o Direction  The path along which people engage their effort o Intensity  The amount of effort allocated to the goal  How much people push themselves to complete a task o Persistence  Continuing the effort for a certain amount of time  Employees sustain their effort until they reach their goal or give up beforehand Employee Ability - Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task o Aptitudes: the natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better o Learned capabilities: skills and knowledge you have acquired which tend to wane over time when not in use - Competencies: personal characteristics that lead to superior performance - Person: job matching o Selecting o Developing o Redesigning Role Perceptions - Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results o Understanding what tasks to perform o Understanding priority of tasks o Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks Situational Factors - Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior - Constraints: time, budget, facilities, etc. - Cues (i.e. Signs of nearby hazards) Types of Individual Behavior - Task performance o Goal-directed behaviors under person’s control o Transform raw materials into goods and services or support and maintain these technical activities - Organizational citizenship o Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)  Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organization’s social and psychological context - Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) o Voluntary behaviors that potentially harm the organization - Joining and staying with the organization o Agreeing to employment relationship o Remaining in that relationship - Maintaining work attendance o Attending work at required times o Presenteeism: attending scheduled work when one’s capacity to perform is significantly diminished by illness or other factors  Common with low job security Personality - Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics o External traits: observable behaviors o Internal states: thoughts, values, etc. inferred from behaviors o Some variability, adjust to suit the situation - Influenced by two ways o Nature  Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioural tendencies and 30 percent of temperament o Nurture  Socialization, life experiences, learning  Personality stabilizes throughout adolescence  Executive function steers behavior guided by our self-concept Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE) Openness to Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Experience Extroversion •Careful •Courteour •Anxious •Sensitive •Outgoing •Dependable •Good-natured •Insecure •Flexible •Sociable •Self-disciplined •Empathic •Hostile •Imaginative •Assertive •Caring •Self-conscious •Curious •Talkative - Conscientiousness and emotional stability o Motivational components of personality o Strongest personality predictors of performance - Extroversion o Linked to sales performances o Related to social interactive and persuasion o Opposite is Introversion - Neuroticism o High level of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness o Low neuroticism (high emotional stability) - Agreeableness o Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness o Opposite is hostile noncompliance - Openness to experience o Linked to high creativity and adaptability to change Jungian Personality Theory - Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information - Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) o Extroversion vs. Introversion  Similar to five-factor dimension  Getting energy o Perceiving Information  Sensing: uses senses, factual, quantitative  Intuition: uses insight, subjective experience o Judging (making decisions)  Thinking: rational logics, systematic data collection  Feeling: influenced by emotions, how choices affect others o Orientation toward the external world  Perceiving: flexible, spontaneous, keeps options open  Judging: order and structure Caveats about Personality Testing - Poorer predictor than other selection tests - Assumes “more is better”, but high traits can be less than ideal too - Self-report scales, subject to bias - Might convey unfavourable image Values in the Workplace - Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences - Define right or wrong, good or bad - Value system: hierarchy of values o Personal values: values exist only within individuals o Shared values: a group of people might hold the same or similar values o Organizational values: shared by people throughout an organization - Rokeach developed two types of values o Instrumental values o Terminal values Schwartz’s Values Model - Openness to change o Motivation to pursue innovation ways o Includes self-direction (creativity, independent thought), stimulation (excitement and chall
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