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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 on Workplace Emotions, Attitudes and Stress.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 4 Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress Emotions - Psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes that create a state of readiness o Blood pressure and heart rate (physiological) o Thought process (psychological) o Facial expression (behavioral) - Most emotions occur without our awareness - Two features of all emotions o All have some degree of activation o All have core effect – evaluate that something is good/bad Types of Emotions Attitudes versus Emotions Attitudes Emotions Judgements about an attitude object Experience related to an attitude object Based mainly on rational logic Based on innate and learned responses to environment Usually stable for days or longer Usually experience for seconds or less Traditional Model of Attitudes - Purely cognitive approach o Beliefs – established perceptions of attitude object o Feelings – calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object o Behavioural intentions – calculated motivation to act in response to the attitude object - Problem o Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes Attitudes: From Beliefs to Behavior Perceived Environment (Cognitive Process) - Beliefs - Feelings Emotional Episodes - Behavioral Intentions (Emotional Process) (Attitude) Behaviour Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior - How emotions influence attitudes: 1. Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes (not just evaluation of beliefs) 2. We “listen in” on our emotions - Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes - Emotions also directly affect behavior o Facial expression Generating Positive Emotions at Work - Companies are aware of the dual cognitive-emotional attitude process - They actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes, which produces more positive work attitudes. Cognitive Dissonance - A condition whereby we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior - This inconsistency generates emotions (i.e. feeling hypocritical) that motivate us to increase consistency - Easier to increase consistency by changing feelings and beliefs, rather than change behavior Emotional Labour - Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions - Higher in job requiring o Frequent/lengthy emotion display o Variety of emotions display o Intense emotions display - Varies across cultures o Displaying or hiding emotions varies across culture  Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Ethiopia, Japan, and Austria  Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, and Russia - Challenges o Difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions o Emotional dissonance  Conflict between true and required emotions  More stressful with surface acting  Pretend to show the required emotions to match required emotions  Less stressful with deep acting  Changing true emotions to match the required emotions Emotional Intelligence (EI) - Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others - Improve o Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities/skills o Can be learned, especially through coaching o Increases with age (maturity) Model of Emotional Intelligence Self (Personal Other (Social competence) Competence) Recognition of emotions Self- Awareness of awareness others' emotions Management Regulation of emotions Self- of others' management emotions Emotional Intelligence Hierarchy - Highest o Management of others’ emotions  Managing other people’s emotions o Awareness of others’ emotions  Perceiving and understanding the meaning of others’ emotions o Self-management  Managing our own emotions o Self-awareness  Perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions - Lowest Job Satisfaction - A person’s evaluation of his or her job and work context - An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience at work - EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction o Exit  Leaving the situation  Quitting, transferring o Voice  Changing the situation  Problem solving, complaining o Loyalty  Patiently waiting for the situation to improve o Neglect  Reducing work effort/quality  Increasing absenteeism - Performance o Happy workers are somewhat more productive works, but…  General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors  Job satisfaction effect on performance is lower when employees have less control over output  Reverse explanation  Job performance affects satisfaction, but only when rewarded - Service profit chain o Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability because:  Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward
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