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Chapter 2

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Ron Velin

BUS 272 MIDTERM REVIEW Chapter 2 – Perception, Personality and Emotions Perception: How you view things based on attention/selection, interpretation, organization, and retrieval; your view of reality, and not reality itself Why perception is important: it results in behaviour which varies by person Three factors that influence perception: 1. The Perceiver (the one making the interpretation) – due to their personal characteristics such as attitudes, motives, interests, experience, and expectations 2. The Target (the object being perceived) – because of the characteristics it possesses such as novelty, motion, sound, size, background and proximity 3. The Situation (the setting, or context where interpretation is being made) – because of the factors within the context or setting that influence our perception such as the time, location, light, or heat Six Perceptual Errors: 1. Contrast Effects: when your evaluation of an individual is affected by recent encounters with other individuals 2. Halo Effect: allows a single trait to influence overall impression 3. Attribution Theory: judging a behaviour as externally (outside causes) or internally (personal control) caused Three rules which determine whether behaviour is internally or externally caused: Distinctiveness: Does the individual act the same way in other situations? Consensus: Does the individual act the same as others in the same situation? Consistency: Does the individual act the same way over time? How attributions get distorted: Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to attribute causes of other people’s behaviour to their character rather than to situational factors e.g. she cheated on her husband because she is a bad person, not because her husband is abusive to her Self-Serving Bias: the tendency to attribute our success to internal factors (e.g. ability or effort), and to blame failures on external factors (e.g. bad luck) 4. Projection: assuming other people possess the same characteristics as you 5. Selective Perception: when your interpretations are biased because of your interests, background, experience and attitudes 6. Stereotyping: judging someone based on your perception of the group they belong to. Can be referred to as Heuristics (generalizations that make our lives easier) and results in Prejudice (dislike based on someone belonging to a particular group) Why do perceptions and judgement matter? Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: the idea that a person will beha
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