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Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 272
Zorana Svedic

CH 7 Communication THE COMMUNICATION PROCESSPoor communication is probably most frequently cited source of interpersonal conflict2007 study of recruiters rated communication skills as the most important characteristic of job candidateCommunicationthe transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people o Can be thought of a process or flow o Both sender and receiver are part of communication process o Process is significantly affected by senders perception of the receiver and the receivers perception of the sender o Both an interactive and iterative process Senderchooses a message chooses the channel ReceiverDecodes the messageProvides FeedbackRepeatProblems occur when something disrupts flow during encoding channel selection decoding or feedback ENCODING AND DECODINGMessages are encoded converted to symbolic form by a sender and decoded interpreted by a receiverFour factors that affect encodingdecoding skill attitudes knowledge and the sociocultural system o skills includes writing reading speaking listening and reasoning skills o attitudes of senderreceiver toward each other affect how message is transmittedreceived o amount of knowledge about subject will affect clarity o rank in hierarchy affects ability to engage in communication THE MESSAGEMessageactual physical product from the source after it is encodedie when we speak speechmsgMessage is affected by the code or group of symbols we use to transfer meaning the content of the message itself the decisions that we make in selecting and arranging both codes and content o Poor choice in symbols or confusion in content of messageproblemsCan get lost in translationtwo parties using contracts written in legal terms and may not capture underlying meaning of parties understandings THE CHANNELChannelthe medium through which a message travelsselected by source and can be formal or informal o Formal established by organization and transmit jobrelated messagesInformal personalsocial msgs o ie formal memos voicemail emails meetings etcCommunication apprehensionundue tension and anxiety about oral communication written communication or bothChannels that are rich have the ability to1 handle multiple cues simultaneously2 facilitate rapid feedback 3 be very personalChannel richnessthe amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode o offers multiple information cues words postures facial expressions gestures intonations being therechoice of one channel over other depends if message is routine or nonroutine o routine messagesstraightforward minimum amount of ambiguity channels that are lower in richness can be used o nonroutine messagescomplicated have potential for misunderstandingchannels higher in richness should be used THE FEEDBACK LOOPFeedback loopfinal link in communication process it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings o When sender or receiver fails to engage in feedback process the communication is effectively oneway communication twoway communication requires both talking and listeningmost effective CONTEXTAll communication takes place within a context and violations of that context may create additional problems in sending and receiving messagesImportant to consider context in both encoding the message and choosing the channel BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION FILTERINGa senders manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiverAs information is passed upwards employees must condense and synthesize information to avoid info overload o Personal interests of those doing the synthesizing as well as the perceptions of what is important will result in filteringMajor determinant of filtering is number of levels in an organizationmore levels more opportunities to filter SELECTIVE PERCEPTION Receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs motivations experience background and other personal characteristics also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them DEFENSIVENESSwhen people feel that they are being threatened they tend to react in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understandingbecome defensive engaging in behaviours such as verbally attacking be sarcastic INFORMATION OVERLOADthe stage of having more information that one can processToo much infopeople tend to select out ignore pass over or forget information or delay further processing LANGUAGEwords mean different things to different peopleAge education and cultural background influence language we use and the definitions we give to words o Also existence of vertical levels even with uniform language particular meaning of word or phrase may not be shared COMMUNICATION UNDER STRESSTips Speak clearly Be aware of nonverbal part of communicating think carefully about how you state tihngs ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATIONDOWNWARD effective managers must explain why a decision was madeUPWARD effective reduce distractions communicate in headlines support headlines with actionable items prepare agenda on speechLATERALoften necessary to save time and ease coordinationcan be dysfunctional if formal vertical channels are breached employees making decisions and actions without managers knowledge SMALL GROUP NETWORKSCommunication networkschannels by which information flowsFormal networkstaskrelated communications that follow the authority chain typically vertical follow chain limited to taskrelated communications3 formal types chain wheel allchannel pg 274Chain Wheel AllChannel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member Satisfaction Moderate Low High
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