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Chapter 5-6

BUS 272 - Canadian Organizational Behaviour (McShane Steen) Chapters 5-6, 8-9

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 5 Foundations of employee Motivation Motivation the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour o One of the 4 essential drivers of individual behaviour and performance o Closely related to employee engagement Employee engagement the employees emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, a clear understanding of their role in the orgs vision, and a belief that they have the resources to perform their job o Relates to 4 cornerstones of MARS model (motivation, ability, role perceptions, situational factors) about ones beliefs and emotional responses to these conditions that create high performance Drives, Needs and Employee Motivation Drives (aka. primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium o prime mover of behaviour by activating emotions, which put us in a state of readiness to act emotions play a central role in motivation Needs goal-directed forces that people experience; represent motivational force of emotions channeled towards particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances Maslows needs hierarchy theory o developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s o A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby ppl are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified integrates long list of previously-studied needs into a 5-level hierarchy o 4 bottom sets of needs known as deficiency needs while self-actualization is known as a growth need o Desire to know and desire for aesthetic beauty are considered 2 innate drives and dont fit in the hierarchy o We are motivated simultaneously by several needs, but the strongest source is the lowest unsatisfied need at the time o Limitations and contributions empirical evidence doesnt support Maslows theory ppl dont progress through the hierarchy as Maslow predicted; however, brings a more holistic, humanistic, positive approach to the study of human motivation Laid the foundation for Positive organizational behaviour a perspective of OB that focuses on building positive qualities and traits w/in individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them Whats wrong with needs hierarchy models? o ERG theory a needs hierarchy theory consisting of 3 fundamental needs: existence, relatedness, growth How ppl regress down the hierarchy when they fail to fulfill higher needs Explains motivation better than Maslow, but its easier to cluster needs around 3 categories than 5 o Most ppl dont fit into a single needs hierarchy; they are unique to each person, not universal Learned Needs theory o Developed by psychologist David McClelland recognized that a persons needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions o Need for Achievement (nAch) if strong, want to accomplish challenging tasks through own effort, prefer working alone, choose moderately risky tasks, desire unambiguous feedback/recognition for success, money is weak motivator o Need for Affiliation (nAff) desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes/expectations, avoid conflict/confrontation; if strong, project favourable image of themselves, actively support others and smooth out workplace conflicts o Need for power (nPow) if high, want to exercise control over others and are concerned about maintain leadership position, rely on persuasive communication, make more suggestions, publicly evaluate situations more frequently; two kinds personalized power (enjoy power for its own sake, use it to advance personal interests, wear power as status symbol), social power (desire power as a means to help others); social power > personalized power effective leaders o Learning needs needs can be learned (strengthened/weakened) achievement progs where trainees write achievement-oriented stories and practice achievement-oriented behaviours in games; attempt to alter individuals self-concept or experiences such that they amplify/suppress related drive-generated emotions Four-drive theory a motivation theory based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn and defend that incorporates both emotions and rationality o Drive to acquire seek, take, control and retain objects and personal experiences (beyond food and water, includes enhancing ones self-concept through relative status and recognition in society); basis of competition and need for esteem insatiable since humans are motivated to achieve higher positions than others o Drive to bond forming social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments w/ others; explains why ppl form social identities by aligning self-concept w/ various social groups; motivates ppl to cooperate and is a fundamental ingredient to success of orgs and dev of societies o Drive to learn drive to satisfy our curiosity, know and understand ourselves and the enviro around us; when observing smt inconsistent w/ or beyond current knowledge, tension is created that motivates us to close info gap; related to higher order needs of growth and self-actualization o Derive defend drive to protect ourselves physically and socially; fight-or-flight response in face of physical danger, but extends to defending relationships/acquisitions/belief systems o All innate and universal hardwired into all humans; all independent of each other, no hierarchy among them, a complete set; proactive (we regularly try to fulfill them) except defend which is reactive o How drives influence employee motivation Info we receive is quickly/nonconsciously tagged w/ emotional markers that subsequently shape our logical analysis of the situation 4 drives determine which emotions are tagged to incoming stimuli Emotions generated by 4 drives motivate us to act, and our mental skill set chooses courses of action that are acceptable to society and our own moral compass o Evaluating 4-drive theory Theory based on research conducted for over 3 decades (drives IDed in psych/anthro studies, translation of drives to behaviour based on research into emotion and nueral processes) Avoids assumption that everyones needs hierarchy is the same; is holistic and humanistic, and provides clearer understanding about role of EI in motivation and behaviour o Practical implications of 4-drive theory Ensure that individual jobs and workplaces provide a balanced opportunity to fulfill the 4 drives best workplaces for employee motivation and well-being offer conditions that help employees fulfill all 4 drives; fulfillment of 4 drives must be kept in balance (i.e. orgs should avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive) Expectancy Theory of motivation a motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed towards behaviours that ppl believe will lead to desired outcomes, i.e. we are motivated to achieve the goals w/ the highest expected payoff o Individuals effort lvl depends on 3 factors: Effort-to-performance (e-to-p) expectancy individuals perception that their effort will result in a particular lvl of performance; usually falls somewhere in between unquestionable accomplishment and nil probability of desired performance lvl Performance-to-outcome (e-to-o) expectancy perceived probability that a specific behaviour or performance lvl will lead to particular outcomes; usually falls somewhere in between definite probability of accomplishing and nil probability of result in successful performance Outcome valences anticipated (dis)satisfaction that an individual feels towards an outcome, and may be positive or negative; +ve valence when consistent w/ values and satisfy needs; -ve valence when oppose values and inhibit need fulfillment o Expectancy theory in practice Increasing E-to-P expectancies Influenced by belief that individual can successfully complete task assure employees that they have necessary competencies, clear role perceptions and necessary resources to reach desired lvls of performance matching jobs to individuals abilities and clearly communicating tasks required is important; learned, so behavioural modeling and supportive feedback can str
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