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Chapter 4

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

Chapter 2 Individual Behaviour, Personality, and Values MARS Model of Individual Behaviour and Performance Motivation the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour o Direction path along which ppl engage their effort; goal-directed, not random o Intensity how much you push yourself to complete the task o Persistence continuing the effort for a certain amount of time Ability o Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task Aptitudes natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks faster and perform them better Learned capabilities skills and knowledge you actually acquired o Competences skills, knowledge, aptitudes and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance Challenge is to match a persons competencies w/ what each job requires strategy is to select employees whose existing competencies best fit the required tasks Role Perceptions the accuracy of how ppl understand their job duties (roles) assigned to them or expected of them o 3 components When employees understand specific tasks assigned to them know specific duties and consequences for which theyre responsible When they understand the priority of their various tasks and performance expectations Understanding the preferred behaviours to accomplish the assigned tasks Situational Factors o Employee behaviour and performance also depends on how well the situation supports task goals conditions beyond the employees immediate control that constrain facilitate behaviour and performance Personality in Organizations Personality the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that characterize a person, along w/ the psychological processes behind those characteristics o Bundle of characteristics that makes us similar or different from other ppl estimate Personality theory ppl have inherent characteristics or traits that can be identified by the consistency or stability of their behaviour across time and situation; attributes a persons behaviour to smt w/in them (personality) rather than purely environmental influences Personality determinants Nature vs. Nurture o Most experts agree that personality is shaped by both nature and nurture, but the relative importance is debated o Nature genetic and hereditary origins Has a large effect on personality up to 50% of variation in behaviour and 30% of temperament differences can be attributed to genes o Nurture socialization, life experiences, other forms of interaction w/ the environment Stability of a persons personality increases up to at least age 30 50 personality development and change occurs when ppl are young Executive function (part of brain that manages goal-directed behaviour) tries to keep behaviour consistent w/ self-concept Five-Factor (CANOE) Model of Personality 5 abstract dimensions representing most personality traits o Conscientiousness personality dimension describing ppl who are careful, dependable, and self-disciplined o Agreeableness traits of being courteous, good-natured, empathetic, and caring o Neuroticism personality dimension descripting ppl with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression and self-consciousness o Openness to experience extent to which ppl are imaginative, creative, curious, and aesthetically sensitive o Extroversion characterizes ppl who are outgoing, talkative, sociable and assertive These are not independent of each other: conscientiousness, agreeable ness and low neuroticism represent underlying characteristic of getting along, while other two dimensions share common underlying factor of getting ahead Strong associations b/w personality and variety of workplace behaviours and outcomes: Conscientiousness and emotional stability best predict individual performance; others are associated w/ more specific types of employee behaviour Jungian Personality Theory and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Carl Jung proposed that personality is primarily represented by the individuals preferences regarding perceiving and judging information o How ppl gather information Sensing (S) perceiving info directly through 5 senses; relies on organized structure to acquire factual and preferably quantitative details; focus on the here and now Intuition (I) relies on insight and subjective experience to see relationships among variables; focus on future possibilities o How ppl process information Thinking (T) rely on rational cause-effect logic and systematic data collection Feeling (F) rely on emotional responses to options presented, and how those choices affect others o Introversion (I) vs. Extroversion (E)o Perceiving (P) open, curious, flexible, spontaneous, like to keep options open; vs. Judging (J) prefer order and structure, want to resolve problems quickly MBTI a personality test that measures each of the traits in Jungs model o Reasonably good at measuring Jungs psychological types and improves self- awareness, but it poorly measures job performance and isnt generally recommended for employment selection or promotion decisions Self-Concept: The I in OB Self-concept an individuals self-beliefs and self-evaluations Who am I? How do I feel about myself? o Ppl develop, nurture, and act in ways that enhance their self-concept Ppl dont have a single unitary self-concept think of themselves in several ways in various situations o has more complexity when it consists of many categories o varies in degree of consistency High consistency when similar traits/values are required across all aspects; low consistency when situations require traits that conflict w/ those of other parts of self o Clarity degree to which a persons self-conception are clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time; usually develops clarity as they get older Above 3 factors influence adaptability and well-being the stronger the three, the better you function Self-enhancement and self-verification o Self-enhancement Desire to feel valued key ingredient in self-concept
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