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Chapter 2

OB Chapter 2 - Perception, Personality, and Emotions.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

Chp 2: Perception, Personality, and Emotions Perception Q: Why should we care? A: People's behaviour is based on their perception of reality, not reality itself. Perception - The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment Factors Influencing Perception 1. Perceiver o Influence of personal characteristics (attitudes, personality, motives, experience, expectations ) 2. Target o Target's characteristics (novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, proximity) 3. Situation o Context of the event (time, work setting, social setting) Perceptual Errors 1. Attribution Theory - The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused  When we observe atypical behaviour, we attribute it to either the individual's personality or the surrounding environment  Three rules about behaviour: Distinctiveness - A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations  unusual = external attribution, usual = internal attribution Consensus - A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way  high consensus = external attribution, low consensus = internal attribution 3. Consistency - A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time  low frequency = external attribution, high frequency = internal attribution  Ways that attributions get distorted: o Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviour of others o Self-serving Bias - The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors  Selective Perception - People's selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes  A characteristic that stands out is more probable to be perceived  Allows us to speed-read others but at the risk of inaccuracy  "we see what we want to see"  Halo Effect - Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic  Contrast Effects - The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered  Projection - Attributing one's own characteristics to other people  Causes people to see others as more homogeneous than different  Stereotyping - Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs  Are widespread and over-generalized to the point that it may lack any truth  Prejudice begins with stereotypes with negative emotions attached Heuristics - Judgement shortcuts in decision making Prejudice - An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group Self-fulfilling Prophecy - A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others Personality Q: Why do we care? A: A look at one's personality is extremely important in predicting one's success in the specified workplace. Personality is made up of both hereditary and environmental factors, moderated by situational conditions. Personality Traits The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Classifications: 1. Extraverted/introverted - dealing with people and things o Extraverted - outgoing, sociable, assertive o Introverted - quiet, shy 2. Sensing/intuitive - processing information o Sensing - practical, orderly, detailed o Intuitive - unconscious process, big picture 3. Thinking/feeling - problem solving o Thinking - reason, logic o Feeling - personal values, emotions 4. Judging/perceiving o Judging - control, order o Perceiving - flexible, spontaneous INTJ: visionaries - original, skeptical, critical, independent ESTJ: organizers - realistic, logical, analytical, decisive ENTP: conceptualizers - innovative, versatile, individualistic VS. The Big Five Personality Model 1. Extraversion - predictor of leadership, but more impulsive o person's comfort level with relationships o Sociable, talkative, assertive 2. Agreeableness - interpersonally oriented jobs, poor negotiators o Person's propensity to defer to others o Good-natured, cooperative, trusting 3. Conscientiousness - related to job performance o Measure of reliability o Responsible, dependable, persistent, achievement-oriented 4. Emotional stability/Neuroticism - job/life satisfaction o Person's ability to withstand stress o Calm, self-confident, secure 5. Openness to Experience - effective leaders, adaptable o Person's range of interests and fascination with novelty o Imaginative, artistically sensitive, intellectual Personality  The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others Personality Traits  Enduring characteristics that describe an ind
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