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Chapter 4

OB Chapter 4 - Theories of Motivation.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

Chp 4: Theories of Motivation What is Motivation? Motivation - The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal i. Intensity - how hard a person tries ii. Direction - channelling towards a beneficial manner iii. Persistence - how long a person can maintain his or her effort Douglas McGregor proposed two views of human beings: 1. Theory X - The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals 2. Theory Y - The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives  Level of motivation varies both among individuals and within individuals at different times Intrinsic Motivators - A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction Extrinsic Motivators - Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards Needs Theories of Motivation Needs theories describe the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals o They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown o Practising managers still regularly use these theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivation Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory - A hierarchy of five needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, self- actualization) in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant  Although needs are never fully met, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates, so you need to progress to a higher level to motivate someone  High-order needs are satisfied internally, low-order needs are satisfied externally  Receives wide recognition due to intuitive logic and ease of understanding However:  Research does not validate the theory o No empirical evidence and little support from studies show organized structures as described by Maslow ERG Theory -Clayton Alderfer ERG Theory - A theory that posits three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth o Existence - similar to physiological and safety needs o Relatedness - similar to social and status needs o Growth - similar to esteem needs and self-actualization  Did not assume rigid hierarchy - individual could be focusing on all three categories simultaneously However:  Empirical research has not been supportive of theory either Motivation-Hygiene Theory -Frederick Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory - A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction  Job satisfaction seemed to be related to intrinsic factors (achievement, recognition, work itself, advancement, growth)  Job dissatisfaction seemed to be related to extrinsic factors (company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, work conditions)  Proposed dual continuum: Satisfaction and No Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and No Dissatisfaction o Hygiene factors can make people not dissatisfied, but not make them satisfied However:  The procedure used is limited by methodology - people credit themselves for positive things, and blame failure on external environment  The reliability is questionable - raters interpreted, so one response may be interpreted differently than similar responses  Not really a theory of motivation  No overall measure of satisfaction was used  Is inconsistent with previous research McClelland's Theory of Needs -David McClelland McClelland's Theory of Needs - Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation o Achievement - The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to standards, to strive to succeed o Power - The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise o Affiliation - The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships  nAch: high achievers want to do things better, hold personally responsible for performance, enjoy succeeding on difficult tasks and dislike succeeding due to chance  nPow: desire to have impact, to be influential, to control others, preference of competitive and status-oriented situations, concern with prestige  nAff: strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations, desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding Summarizing Need Theories  All propose similar idea: Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation o They differ in types of needs considered and whether it is a hierarchy or a list of needs Process Theories of Motivation Process theories help us understand the actual ways in which we and others can be motivated Expectancy Theory -Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory - The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them Focuses on three relationships: 1. Effort-Performance Relationship Expectancy - The belief that effort is related to performance o Employee's expectancy influenced by self-esteem, previous success, help from supervisors and subordinates, information, and proper materials and equipment o Expressed s a probability, ranges 0 - 1 2. Performance-Rewards Relationship Instrumentality - The belief that performance is related to rewards o Ranges -1 to 1: negative indicates high performance reduces chances of desired outcome 3. Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship Valence - The value or importance an individual places on a reward Goal-Setting Theory - Edwin Locke Goal - What an individual is trying to accomplish Management By Objectives (MBO) - An approach to goal setting in which specific measureable goals are jointly set by managers and employees o Progress on goals is periodically reviewed and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress Goal setting motivates in four ways: 1. Goals direct attention - helps indicate where you should direct your efforts 2. Goals regulate effort - determines how much effort to put into something 3. Goals increase persistence 4. Goals encourage the development of strategies and action plans Goals must be SMART:  Specific: Individuals know exactly what is to be achieved  Measurable: Goals can be tracked and reviewed  Attainable: The goals are reasonable and achievable  Results-oriented: The goals should support the vision of the organization  Time-bound: The goals are to be achieved within a stated time Further research suggests:  Specific goals increase performance, under certain conditions o But can lead to poorer performance in complex tasks  Difficult goals, when accepted, result
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