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Chapter 8

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Business Administration
BUS 381
Karen Ruckman

CHAPTER EIGHT: Orientation and Training Orienting Employees - New employees need clear understanding of company policies, performance expectations, operating procedures - In long term, comprehensive orientation  turnover reduction, increased morale, fewer instances of corrective discipline, fewer employee grievances Purpose of Orientation Programs - Employee Orientation: provides new employees with basic bg info about firm and job o Component of employer’s new employee socialization process - Socialization: ongoing process of instilling in employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values and patterns of behaviour expected by organization - Reality Shock: discrepancy between what new employee expects from his new job and the realities of it o Should be reducing this - Should sit down and decide on work-related goals with new employee o Provide basis for early feedback and establish foundation for ongoing perf management - Builds brand as employer of choice Content of Orientation Programs - Employee given: o Handbook that covers company history and mission, working hours, attendance expectations, vacations, payroll, employee benefits, pensions, work policies, etc  Represents contract with employee o Tour of company facilities and intro to employee’s supervisor and co-workers o Explanation of job procedures, duties, and responsibilities o Summary of training to be received o Explanation of performance appraisal criteria Responsibility for Orientation - HR specialist explains working hours, vacations, tour, etc on first day - HR department should follow up with new employee 3 months after to address remaining q’s Special Orientation Situations - Diverse Workforce o New employees should be advised to expect variety of reactions from current employees if they are someone of diff bg and tips on how to deal with such situations o Should know how to report reactions that are prohibited under human rights legislation - Mergers and Acquisitions o New employees need to receive info about details of merger as part of company history o Need to be aware of ongoing, unresolved difficulties regarding day to day operational issues related to their work - Union vs. Non-Union Employees o Employees in unionized positions need to be provided with copy of collective agreement and be told which info relates specifically to their particular job o Both need to be aware of which jobs are unionized, which are not - Multi-location organizations o Employees should be aware of other locations and what business functions are performed in each Problems with Orientation Programs - Too much information provided in short time - Little or no orientation provided - Information provided can be too broad; not meaningful to new employee - Info can also be too detailed to realistically expect new employee to remember Evaluation of Orientation Programs - 3 approaches to evaluating orientation programs: o Employee reaction – interview new employees for opinion o Socialization effects – review employees at regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding of organization o Cost/Benefit analysis – compare orientation costs, benefits of orientation Executive Integration - Executives do not typically participate in formal orientation, but lack of attention to exec integration can result in poor assimilation and work effectiveness - Key aspects of integration process (important to have a productive relationship between new exec and his organization): o Identifying position specifications o Providing realistic info to job candidates and providing support regarding reality shock o Assessing each candidate’s previous record at making organizational transitions o Announcing hiring with enthusiasm o Stressing importance of listening, and promoting more time spent talking with boss o Assisting new execs who are balancing work to change cultural norms while they are part of culture themselves The Training Process - Training: process of teaching employees basic skills/competencies they need to perform jobs - Development is training of a long term nature - Training can strengthen employee commitment Training and Learning - Three main learning styles: o Auditory – learning through talking/listening o Visual – learning through pictures o Kinaesthetic – tactile learning - Training effectiveness o 1) easier for trainees to understand and remember material that is meaningful o 2) make sure it is easy to transfer new skills and behaviours from training site to job site o 3) motivate trainee o 4) effectively prepare trainee Legal Aspects of Training - Negligent training occurs when employer fails to train adequately and employee subsequently harms third party Five-Step Training Process - Training and Development Process: o 1) Needs Analysis: identifies specific job performance skills needed, analyze skills and needs of prospective trainees, to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives o 2) Instructional design: actual content of training program compiled and produced, eg workbooks, exercises, activities o 3) validation: final revisions on the pilot is introduced to a representative audience o 4) implementation o 5) evaluation: assessed according to reaction, learning, behaviour, results Step 1: Training Needs Analysis - Determine what training is required o Task analysis: detailed study of job to identify skills and competencies it requires so that an appropriate training program can be instituted o Performance analysis: appraises performance of current employees to determine whether training could reduce performance problems Task Analysis: Assessing Training Needs of New Employees - Aim: develop skills and knowledge required for effective performance - Task Analysis Record Form o Contains 6 types of info  1) column 1, task list  2) column 2, when an
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