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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Designing and analyzing jobs.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 381
Natalie Zhao

Chapter 4 Designing and analyzing jobs Job design Job design the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job an organizations strategy and structure influence the ways in which jobs are designed In bureaucratic organizations for example because a hierarchical division of labour exists jobs are generally highly specialized In addition effective job design also takes into consideration human and technological factors Job a group of related activities and duties help by a single employee or a number of incumbents Position the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person To clarify in a department with 1 supervisor 1 clerk 40 assemblers and 3 towmotor operators There are 45 positions and 4 jobs The nature of job analysis Job analysis the procedure for determining the tasks duties and responsibilities of each job and the human attributes in terms of knowledge skills and abilities required to perform it once this information has been gathered it is used for developing job description what the job entails and job specifications what the human requirements areJob specialization industrial engineering Work simplification an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work such as planning and organizing to supervisors and managers while giving lowerlevel employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management Industrial engineering a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods making work cycles more efficient by modifying combining rearranging or eliminating tasks and establishing time standards Work simplification evolved from scientific management theory Work simplification can increases operating efficiency in a stable environment and may be very appropriate in settings employing individuals with intellectual disabilities or those lacking education and training Moreover among educated employees simplified jobs often lead to lower satisfaction higher rates of absenteeism and turnovertoo much emphasis on the concerns of industrial engineeringimproving efficiency and simplifying work methodsmay result in human considerations being neglected or downplayedBehavioural aspects of job design Job enlargement horizontal loading a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform Job rotation another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another Job enrichment vertical loading any effort that makes an employees job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties all not employees want additional responsibility and challenge Some people prefer routine jobs and may resist job redesign effortsTimebased job design Timebased job design job designs that focus on giving a team rather than an individual a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work Team a small group of people with complementary skills who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability teambased designs are best suited to flat and matrix organization structuresErgonomic aspects of job design Ergonomics an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs It aims to adapt the entire job systemthe
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