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Readings 2.6-3.1.odt

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Simon Fraser University
CHEM 121
Steven Holdcroft

Readings 2.6-3.1 2.6 Atomic structure • sodium always have 11 protons, 11 electrons • isotopes – atoms w/ same number of protons but different neutrons ex) 23( atomic mass – total number of protons and neutrons) Na 11 (atomic number) ^ this is written as sodium-23; 11e-, 11p+ and 12 neutrons 2.7 Molecules and Ions • John Dalton was first to recognize chemical compounds were collection of atoms • Chemical bonds – forces that hold atoms together • Covalent bonds – bonds formed by sharing electrons • molecule – collection of atoms • chemical formula – different symbols indicate the atoms present w/ subscripts to indicate how many number of that certain atom (ex. CO2) • structural formula – individual bonds shown by lines (ex H-O-H) • Space-filling model – show relative size of atoms • ions – charged atom(s) • cation – positive ion (ex. Na --> Na+ + e-) • anion -negative ion (Cl + e- --> Cl-) ◦ ionic bonding – attraction b/w oppositely charge ions 2,8 Periodic tables • group/families – vertical columns of periodic table; have similar chemical properties • periods – horizontal rows of elements • noble gases are monotonic and least reactive 2,9 Name Simple compounds • Binary compounds – compounds made of two elements • Binary Compounds (TYPE 1: Ionic) ◦ Binary Ionic Compounds – has a cation, written first and an anion ▪ 1) cation is always named first, anion second ▪ 2) monatomic cation take its name from element ▪ 3) monatomic anion takes first part of its name, then adding “ide” • Binary Compounds (TYPE 2: Ionic) ◦ charge on mental ion must be specified ◦ ex) iron (iii) chloride ◦ in alternate names, the first ion with higher charge ends in “ic” and lower charge ends in ous
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