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CHEM 281 (16)
Chapter 1

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Simon Fraser University
CHEM 281
Marijuana Paduraru

Chapter 1: Electronic Structure and Bonding • Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon • Atomicnumber of an atom is the number of protons in its nucleus • Atomicorbital indicates where there is a high probability of finding an electron o Closerthe atomic orbital is to the nucleus, the lower its energy • Degenerate orbitals have the same energy • Aufbau principle: 1s, 2s 2p, 3s 3p 3d • Pauliexclusion principle: no two identical(particles with half -integer spin) may occupy the same quantum state individually • Hund’s rule: (arrows) • Octet rule: an atom will give up, accept, or share electrons in order to fill its outer shell or get an outer shell with eight electrons. o Electropositive elements readily lose electrons o Electronegative elements readily acquire electrons • Electronic configuration of an atom describes the orbitals occupied by the atom’s electrons o Core electrons: in inner shells o Valence electrons: in the outer-most shells o Lone-pair electrons: valence electrons not used in bonding • Electrostatic attractions: attractive forces between opposite charges o Ionicbond formed by a transfer of electrons o Covalentbond formed by sharing electrons  Polarcovalent bond: between atoms with different electronegativities, has a dipole moment, which depends on the magnitudes and directions of the bond dipole moments • Lewis structures: indicate atoms bonded together and show lone pairs and formal charges o Carbocation: positively charged carbon o Carbanion:negatively charged carbon o Radical:unpaired electron • Molecular Orbital (MO) theory: covalent bonds result when atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals o Atomicorbitals combine to give a bonding MO and a higher energy antibonding MO  Sigmabonds: cylindrically symmetrical  Pi bonds formwhen p orbitals overlap side o side • Bond strength is measured by
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