Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Criminology (615)
CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

4 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Professor
Kamal Masri
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 7- Information Systems for Competitive Advantage What are the fundamental types of IS within Organizations?  Information systems affect competitive advantage by making primary and support activities more productive than those of other companies.  2 questions: which IS system to invest in and which IS contributes to competitive advantage? Evolution of IS Systems  Calculation systems o First systems, 1950 – 1980 o Eliminated repetitive calculations o First computed payroll and printed paycheques o Applied debit, credit to general ledger and balanced company’s account records o Inventory Quantities o Single purpose scope o Ex: Mainframe, punch cards  Functional Systems o Assisted single department/ business function o Payroll  H.R o General ledger  Financial reporting o Inventory merged into operations/ manufacturing o More features/capabilities added within each field o Problem: “Functional silos”  systems were not inter related to one another o Ex: Mainframe, standalone PC, networks and LANs  Integrated, Cross Functional systems o Created to assist with single functions while integrating activities across various business processes  Cross – departmental/ cross functional  Networked PCs, client servers, internet, intranet  Integration is difficult because  Requires many departments to work together o May have no clear authority o Interorganizational systems – systems used by two/more related companies  E-Commerce/ supply chain management What are functional systems and why are they changing?  Chart 213  Marketing And Sales Systems o Primary functional system = Product management o Assess how well product-marketing efforts are working for each product and allows adjustment o Other functions –  lead tracking, sales forecasting, customer management, customer service  Operational systems o Used by distributors and retailers o Systems: order entry  Can be done in the store or online o System: Order management  Track orders through fulfillment process, handling back orders and order changes as well as providing order status o System: Inventory management systems –  analyze sales activity and generate product orders (IMS) o System: Customer service –  Provide information about order statuses and are also used to process complaints, to respond to product/service issues, receive returns  Manufacturing systems o Support the transformation of materials into products  Process inventory data for raw materials, work in process, finished goods  production planning  2 manufacturing philosophies  Push production planning – organization creates production plan/schedule and pushes goods through manufacturing and sales o Make first, sell after  Pull production planning – company sells goods in response to customer o demand as their inventories fall, they will produce more  One – of production o Organization will plan its activities to build that one item o Additional systems:  Manufacturing scheduling  Determining optimal methods for manufacturing (less idle time for workers/machines  cheaper)  Human Resources Systems o Main system – payroll, sick leave, vacation time accounting o Other systems – recruitment, performance evaluation, training o Larger organizations use HR systems to classify employees upon skills, training, etc to ensure optimal positional placement  Accounting Systems o Supports all accounting activities o Acc. Receivable, acc. Payable, etc o Stocks, borrowing, capital investments  treasury management o Significantly improved timeliness for accounting information, near real time  Why are functional systems changing? o Duplicate data due to independent databases  Lack of data integrity, may be conflicting o Business processes disjointed and difficult to integrate activities  Different departments may categorize same items differently o Problems lead to integrated enterprise information, queries must be made across various databases for one report with possible incorrect data o Inefficient because departments only have their isolated data to work with o All lead to higher costs What is the importance of industry standard processes?  Business process design/ business process redesign – organizations s should not just automate/improve existing functional systems but try to change the way things are done through IS o Hopes to integrate several different areas in an entire value chain  Another attempt was to establish more efficient business processes that integrate activities of all departments involved in value chain o Takes advantage of as many cross departmental links as possible  Challenges of Business Process Design o Expensive & difficult  Due to business process being complex and requires many people agreeing on a decision  Due to employees resisting change  Benefits of Industry standard processes o Splits cost of business process design amongst many organizations  After purchase, companies will conform activities around industry standard processes o Occasionally, purchased cross developmental software is not the main benefit towards software purchase but the tried and tested cross departmental processes that it comes with and provides o Disadvantages  Industry standards may be different than what is being done  changes will be difficult  Using the same procedures as other companies will affect competitive advantage What are Customer relationship management (CRM) Systems?  Supports business processes of attracting, selling, managing, delivering, supporting customers  Maximizer Software for small/medium sized businesses, Oracle/Siebel Systems and CDC/ Pivotal Corp for larger companies  Difference CRM systems and traditional functional applications o CRM systems address all activities and events that touch the customer, provides unified repository for data about all customer interactions  Customer life cycle – marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, loss/churn  Websites that require contact information before showing promotions build lead tracking applications  Systems ensure sales management has sufficient information to prioritize and allocate sales time and effort o Ie. To ensure $10,000 worth of support given to a customer with a life time value of $500 What are Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems? 
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit