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CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 7

Ch.7 Psychological Theories

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CRIM 101
Bryan Kinney

Chapter 7Psychological TheoriesMajor Principles of Psychological Theories1 The individual is the primary unit of analysis2 Personality is the major motivational element within individuals because it is the seat of drives and the source of motives3 Crimes result from abnormal dysfunctional or inappropriate mental processes within the personality4 Criminal behaviour while condemned by the social group may be purposeful for the individual insofar as it addresses certain felt needs 5 Normality is generally defined by social consensusthat is what the majority of people in any social group agree is real appropriate or typical6 Defective or abnormal mental processes may have a variety of causes includinga A diseased mindb Inappropriate learning or improper conditioningc The emulation of inappropriate role modelsd Adjustment to inner conflictsEarly Psychological TheoriesEarly psychological theories emphasized either behavioural conditioning or personality disturbances and diseases of the mind psychopathology Ivan Pavlov physiologist development on the concept of conditioned behaviour by work with salivating dogsConditioning A psychological principle that holds that the frequency of anybehaviour can be increased or decreased through reward punishment andorassociation with other stimuliPsychopathology The study of pathological mental conditions that is mental illnessThe psychopath also called a sociopath is generally viewed as cruel withoutthought or feelings for his victimsHervey Cleckley developed the concept of the psychopathic personality and identified a number of characteristics of the psychopathic personality including superficial charm inability to feel guilt unreliability chronic lying Psychopath or SociopathA person with a personality disorder especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behaviour which is often said to be the result of a poorly developed superegoAntiSocial Personality Disorder The terms sociopath and psychopath have fallen into professional disfavour in recent years being replaced by the terms antisocial or asocial personalityAntisocial or Asocial PersonalityRefers to individuals who are basically unsocialized and whose behaviour pattern brings them repeatedly into conflict with society
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