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CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4 NOTES: PSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITIONS AND CRIMINAL MOTIVATIONS

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Professor
Barry Cartwright
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 4 NOTES PSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITIONS AND CRIMINAL MOTIVATIONSBIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMESacco and Kennedy describe criminological theories as generalrather than individual explanations of why crime occurs Prof Cartwright disagrees more individual process theories than generalGood or valid theories should be logically constructed and should be consistent with what we know about crimeTheories should also be falsifiable we should be able to test or measure themPOSITIVISM AND DETERMINISM Most theories discussed in Chapter 4 of The Criminal Event are positivist theoriesPositivismuse of scientific methods to study and explain humancriminal behaviourInvolves a degree of determinismie the way people behave is due to circumstances beyond their control FOUR MAIN APPROACHESgeneral pedigree studiestwin studiesadoption studieskaryotype studies GENERAL PEDIGREE STUDIESLook at people who are related to each other to see whether they behave in similar mannerAssume that children of parents who engage in criminal behavior are more likely to be criminals themselves because they inherited their parents genesIf one brother is criminal other brother should have higher chance of being criminal too because of similar genetic makeupPROBLEMS WITH PEDIGREESDifficult to say whether criminal behavior caused by inherited tendencies or by social environmentUnless raised in different family withdifferent parents it could be argued that parents taught children that criminal behavior was acceptableChildren may learn criminal behavior by watching and imitating behavior of their parents TWIN STUDIESEffort to avoid problems associated with general pedigree studiesResearchers study differences between dizygotic DZ and monozygotic MZ twinsDZ twins inherit only 50 of their parents genes MZ twins 100 of their parents genesConcordancethe degree to which behavior of the twins is similarMZ AND DZ TWINS
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