Textbook Notes (378,609)
CA (167,197)
SFU (5,529)
CRIM (649)
CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4 NOTES: PSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITIONS AND CRIMINAL MOTIVATIONS

7 Pages
94 Views

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 101
Professor
Barry Cartwright

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 4 NOTES: PSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITIONS AND CRIMINAL
MOTIVATIONS
BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME
Sacco and Kennedy describe criminological theories as general ( rather than
individual) explanations of why crime occurs (Prof. Cartwright disagrees, more
individual process theories than general)
Good or “valid” theories should be logically constructed, and should be consistent
with what we know about crime
Theories should also be falsifiable- we should be able to test or measure them.
POSITIVISM AND DETERMINISM
Most theories discussed in Chapter 4 of The Criminal Event are positivist theories
Positivism = use of “scientific” methods to study and explain human/criminal
behaviour
Involves a degree of determinism ( i.e. the way people behave is due to
circumstances beyond their control)
FOUR MAIN APPROACHES
general pedigree studies
twin studies
adoption studies
karyotype studies
GENERAL PEDIGREE STUDIES
Look at people who are related to each other, to see whether they behave in
similar manner
Assume that children of parents who engage in criminal behavior are more likely
to be criminals themselves, because they inherited their parents genes
If one brother is criminal, other brother should have higher chance of being
criminal too, because of similar genetic makeup
PROBLEMS WITH PEDIGREES
Difficult to say whether criminal behavior caused by inherited tendencies, or by
social environment
Unless raised in different family, with different parents, it could be argued that
parents taught children that criminal behavior was acceptable
Children may learn criminal behavior by watching and imitating behavior of their
parents.
TWIN STUDIES
Effort to avoid problems associated with general pedigree studies
Researchers study differences between dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ)
twins
DZ twins inherit only 50% of their parents' genes; MZ twins 100% of their parents
genes
Concordance = the degree to which behavior of the twins is similar
MZ AND DZ TWINS
Studies have suggested that if one MZ twin is a criminal, the other MZ twin is
more likely to be criminal
DZ twin less likely to display the same criminal tendencies
TWINS CAN BE DOUBLE TROUBLE
Fail to take into consideration that most monozygotic twins are raised in similar
environments, have similar social experiences
Because monozygotic twins look so much alike, they are also more likely to
provoke similar responses from other people then dizygotic twins, who may not
look as much alike.
ADOPTION STUDIES
Study identical (MZ) twins raised by different sets of parents, in different
environments
Control for social class, child- rearing practices, and diet
Problem: kids up for adoption are usually lower class, unwanted, poorly fed, etc.
Problem: adopted kids usually matched with similar-looking parents
MUDDY WATERS
Most adoption studies have found relatively low rate of concordance
Sacco & Kennedy conclude there is “no real scientific basis for… the existence of
a crime gene”
Others claim there is measurable degree of association between criminal
behavior of biological parents and their children put up for adoption at birth.
KARYOTYPE STUDIES
Examine number, shape, size of chromosomes
Focus on existence of extra Y chromosome, or XYY gene
XX chromosome determines gender in women; XY chromosome determines
gender in males.
THE XYY SUPER MALE
Relatively rare in the general population ( one in 1000)
More common in prison population (one in 100)
Impulsive, low tolerance for frustration or anxiety (frequently leave school for this
reason)
Seem fascinated by aggression as indicated by hobbies and sports interest
often impulsively aggressive
WHERE’S THE BEEF?
Little evidence to suggest that they commit more violent crimes than other
males, or that they are necessarily more aggressive
SHELDON’S SOMATOTYPES
Extreme endomorphic (fat)

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 4 NOTES PSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITIONS AND CRIMINAL MOTIVATIONSBIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIMESacco and Kennedy describe criminological theories as generalrather than individual explanations of why crime occurs Prof Cartwright disagrees more individual process theories than generalGood or valid theories should be logically constructed and should be consistent with what we know about crimeTheories should also be falsifiable we should be able to test or measure themPOSITIVISM AND DETERMINISM Most theories discussed in Chapter 4 of The Criminal Event are positivist theoriesPositivismuse of scientific methods to study and explain humancriminal behaviourInvolves a degree of determinismie the way people behave is due to circumstances beyond their control FOUR MAIN APPROACHESgeneral pedigree studiestwin studiesadoption studieskaryotype studies GENERAL PEDIGREE STUDIESLook at people who are related to each other to see whether they behave in similar mannerAssume that children of parents who engage in criminal behavior are more likely to be criminals themselves because they inherited their parents genesIf one brother is criminal other brother should have higher chance of being criminal too because of similar genetic makeupPROBLEMS WITH PEDIGREESDifficult to say whether criminal behavior caused by inherited tendencies or by social environmentUnless raised in different family withdifferent parents it could be argued that parents taught children that criminal behavior was acceptableChildren may learn criminal behavior by watching and imitating behavior of their parents TWIN STUDIESEffort to avoid problems associated with general pedigree studiesResearchers study differences between dizygotic DZ and monozygotic MZ twinsDZ twins inherit only 50 of their parents genes MZ twins 100 of their parents genesConcordancethe degree to which behavior of the twins is similarMZ AND DZ TWINS
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit