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CRIM 101 (121)
Chapter 9

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CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

CRIM CHAPTER 9 TEXTBOOK NOTES CHAPTER 9 : Crime and Leisure Introduction − “Leisure” may be less closely related to any specific location − It is pursued in a variety of settings − “third places” are roughly comparable to unique leisure settings − They are the places where people can relax − Leisure involves both places where we can relax, and they involve time when we are not consumed by work or family responsibilities − People who are “at leisure” see to be more at risk for many different types of victimization − leisure preferences of young people are often seen as cause of crime (drug use) − Places such as bars and sports complexes are often scenes of crime What is Leisure? − Leisure : Free time ( after work, familial, and other obligations are met) that can be used for play or recreation nd − Leisure has a subjective (2 meaning) as well as an objective character − Usually assume that leisure activities are freely chosen and are interaction occurs among peers − Leisure time is unequally distributed − Men generally have more free time than women − The amount of leisure time that people have available to them and the uses to which they put it are important elements of what we refer to as lifestyle − Opportunity theories are especially attentive to the linkage between lifestyle and crime Precursors 1) How specific types of leisure activities motivate offenders toward offending or free them from constraints against offending ( offender - centred) 2) Leisure activities and setting facilitate encounters between offenders and potential victims (opportunity- centred) Leisure as a Corrupter − usually relates to youthful offenders − movies, music, books, television all accused of weakening youthful inhibitions, providing negative role models , destroying childhoods and ruining bonds between adolescents and adult authority − television violence seems to be supported by anecdotal evidence ( in the form of copycat crimes) − The effects of television violence on criminal motivation is limited by several factors i) Violent crimes account for only a small portion of total crime - unless we want to say it effects non-violent crimes as well there is no concrete evidence ii) criminal motivation is a complex issue, any effects produced by media exposure must be understood in the context of many other factors that encourage or restrain offending iii) exposure to violent context in lab settings triggers violent arousal, but the same effects are not necessarily produced by media exposure in the real world − To summarize, television violence may be most likely to affect the behaviour of those individuals who already are susceptible to its effect − media may not cause interpersonal aggression in any direct way, but it may reinforce pre- existing tendencies or shape them in particular ways − media violence may not motivate one to commit a crime, but it may affects how they commit the crime − With adults, the effects of violent pornography on perpetrators of sex crimes may be most evident in men who are already predisposed to behave violently towards women − As for video games, as they increasingly become more life-like and violence, some argue that it is far more capable of harm than traditional television − Children now differ than children of 1960s, as kids back in those days were forced to accompany their parents in some way, like watching their television programs − New technologies and youthful lifestyle concerns the prevalence of personal media devices such as Ipods and Mp3 players − The growth of these devices can be linked to increase in violent crimes such as robbery − Eg. Changing a song on your ipod can meet the 3 elements of the routine activity theories i) motivated offender : the offender watching you take your ipod out ii) suitable target : bringing our your ipod to change the song iii) absence of guardianship : Your headphones block the sound, you don't notice your surrounding, thereby reducing the level of guardianship − Such technology can be seen as “crimogenic devices” Leisure and Freedom from Social Control − patterns of leisure activity increase the likelihood that crimes will occur by freeing youth from the social controls that might otherwise check or restrain delinquent conduct − Juvenile Leisure , is pursued out of the sight of parents and teachers and in the presence of peers − In general, time spent with peers increase risk of delinquency and time spent with parents decreases it − offenders usually were out, non-offenders spent more time at home − leisure activities removed some of the obstacles to delinquency by lessening the chances of apprehension and by providing exposure to behavioural contexts that facilitated delinquent action − In contrast, leisure activities by adults and spending time with parents can be expected to decrease the likelihood of delinquency by strengthening social bonds − Ex.Athletic programs have been used to discourage youthful offending − Juvenile offending and victimization actually peaked during school hours, while substance use tended to be concentrated on weekends − however, specific offence those that were more serious were during after school hours, where supervision was the lowest − as power control theory argued, leisure may affect males more than females, as females were more used to being controlled and restricted LeisureActivities and Opportunities − a large number of personal victimization occur in the evenings and on weekend, when most people are “at rest” − personal victimization occur disproportionately in leisure settings : that is in informal contexts that hose a wide range of activities such as drinking, dancing etc. − Permissive environs : Social settings such as bars/parties where individuals feel free of many of the constraints that operate in other settings
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