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Criminology (615)
CRIM 101 (121)
Jay H (4)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 crim 101 notes

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CRIM 101
Jay H

Chapter 4KNOW THEORIESBIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF INTRODUCTIONCRIMECriminological theories can be understood as TEST ON WHAT THE THEORIES generalized explanation of criminal phenomena Bohm SAYS1997 1Criminological theoriesgeneralized explanations of why how and with what consequences crimes occurEx why males are more likely than women to commit a violent crime2The theories has to be consistent and can help us make sense of the factsEvidence sometimes seems to support at least partially apparently competing viewsThere might be more than one correct answer to the factsEx why do big cities have more theftsAnswer 1 big cities are more likely to be homes to the kind of people who tend to steal nomatter whatAnswer2 big cities undermine the social control that might discourage people from stealing3The must be falsifiableMust be stated in terms that we can test them out so we can determine with theories provide false informationIntellectualoriginsofcriminologyClassical school a set of theories that views the offender as a rational person who would be deterred only by the threat of sanctionFounded by Becarria and BenthamSeverity swiftness of punishmentFounder of criminology is Italian philosopher Cesare BeccariaoThe state needs to use fear of pain to control behaviour oThe degree of punishment should be sufficient to outweigh the pleasure derived from the criminal actJeremy Bentham also influenced heavily on the modern thinking about deterrence and punishment rational man should act to avoid punishment thus it is important that laws be clear about both how one should act and what the costs are if one disobeyed the lawHuman behaviour is based on free willIndividuals hedonistically calculate their activitiesHedonism the principal that the seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of pain are the ultimate aims and motivating forces of human actionsA person commits crime when the pleasure of it outweighs the punishment Did not see crime as a product of free willPositivist school scientific research can only come from direct observation experimentation and provision of quantitative datebiological causesheredity is a primary influence on behaviourIn late 1800 Cesare Lombroso started to question the classic approachHe believed that human behaviours are determined unlike Beccarias ideaCriminals were born with that characteristicAtavistic criminals less likely to conform to the demands of contemporary social life because they reflect a more primitive human conditionPhysical signs of atavism include unusual size of ears fleshy lips pouches in the cheek a head of unusual size and shape indicators that a person will behave criminallyEXPLAININGOFFENDINGBEHAVIOURS1Criminal motivation as results from deficiencies in the offenders physiological or psychological makeup2Offenders are a product of troublesome social conditions that propel them toward crime3Motivation arises from the offenders commitment to cultural beliefs that condone criminal conductsBIOCRIMINOLOGICALEXPLANATIONSOFCRIMINALMOTIVATIONWide range of factors associated with crime Biology does not cause crime1Genes
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