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Chapter 5

CRIM 210 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Gang, Juvenile Delinquency, Hate Crime

Course Code
CRIM 210
David Mac Alister

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Crim 210 Chapter 4
Racialize/racialized a concept that allows an understanding of racism that
goes beyond overt expressions and discriminatory actions of individuals
For criminologist, the social face of youth crime has always been gendered
and classed
Two methodological developments:
1. Ethnographic method a research method that involves richly
detailed descriptions and classifications of a group of people or
2. Longitudinal study a research method in which data on a group
of people are collected over a number of time periods, rather than
at only one point in their lives
Race a socially constructed category based on beliefs about biological
differences between groups of people that have no basis in scientific
Ethnicity a person’s group of origin, where origin is usually thought of in
terms of ancestral location and/or elements of culture
o Example language, style of dress, behavioural patterns, social
Racial and ethnic distinctions produced and maintained by power
differentials between a dominant racial or ethnic group and subordinate
Socio-economic status similar to social class, but specifically refers to a
person’s social standing or position in terms of education, occupation, and
Federal statistics do NOT provide public information on race and crime
largely because human-rights organizations have objected to the collection of
justice statistics by race
Hate crime behaviours advocating genocide, public incitement or willful
promotion of hatred, and mischief in relation to religious property
Racialized Youth Gangs
Media major contributor to the racialization of youth crime and in identifying
presumed existence and racial composition of youth gangs
Gang research usually shows quite different picture of youth gangs than does
the media namely, that youth gangs and street gangs are usually multi-
Defining children of immigrants as particularly troublesome not new
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Black Youth
Current fears about young Black men can be understood as a moral panic
brought on by public apprehension about the profound social changes we
have been experiencing in recent decades
Aboriginal Youth
Issues of Aboriginal youth crime have now focused on urban areas and
shifted to concerns over gang-related criminal activity
Aboriginal youth are overrepresented in court and prison populations
First Nations compared with the term Aboriginal, the term First Nations
has clear political connotations because it defines a group in historically
specific terms. It means the first people who were a nation
Three age-related issues in the public discourse surrounding youth crime:
1. Increased criminal activity by youth under 12 years of age
2. Increases in overall youth crime (particularly after the Young
Offenders Act was implemented)
3. Increases in violent crime
Youth Under 12
Petty nature offences
o Example mischief
Committed alone
Youth Crime Trends
Youth crime rates increased over the lifespan of the juvenile justice system in
Canada, with periods of rapid increases with the YOA and then of decreases
with the YCJA
Two reasons why age changes in the juvenile justice legislation account for
increased crime rates:
1. Criminal activity increases with age
2. Police charge older youth, particularly male youth, at a higher rate
than younger youth
Rates of violent crime increase with age
Adults and youth court statistics show similar patterns in age-specific rates
The number of young adults who commit crimes is disproportionately high
in comparison with their proportionate share of the overall population
Gender the socially constructed aspects of a person’s biological sex
Boys far more involved in crime and serious criminal activity than girls of
any age
Official Data
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