Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
SFU (6,000)
CRIM (700)
Chapter 6

CRIM 210 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Proletariat, Mena, Conflict Theories

by dap

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 210
Professor
Ray Corrado
Chapter
6

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Chapter 6: Different Directions in Theorizing About Youth Crime and Delinquency
Introduction
Critical Perspective on Crime: Refers to the groups of theories that begins with the sassupmtion that
structure of power and oppression are the source of crime
oRace, class, gender, and to some extent, age structures in society
Labelling theory
Work of Edwin lemert and howard becker
Play and deliqneuncy
Tannenbaum says best adult response to delinquent behavior is do nothing
Its part of play
Adults turn children’s play into crime
Adults in the community become annoyed or angered by what children are doing and respond by trying to
conol or stop the activity
Children begin to resent adult interference and act in a defiant manner
Secondary deviance
Lemert argued that there are two types of deviance
Primary deviance: initial act where anyone is potentially a primary deviant
Secondary deviant: all of the behaviors that a person develops as a result of societal responses to her or his
primary deviance
Person develops a self concept as a deviant and acts accordingly
Lemert maintained that official responses to juvenile delinquency are more likely to increase delqineuent
behavior than to prevent it from occurring again
Societal responses
Once attached, label is generalized to attach to everything that the person does
Deviance is a master status meaning that no matter what her or his other qualities are, a person who ahs
been labelled with be seen and responses to as a deviant
Reintegrative shaming: public shaming of a persons behavior, followed by community forgiveness and
attempts at bringing the person back into the community, will decrease the likelihood of future criminality
1. Critical criminology and conflict theory
Focuses on inequality and oppression as the soruces of criminal activity and issues in the criminal justice
system
Ask questions about social justice and injustices rather than criminal justice and views strcutures of class,
racism, sexism and other isms as criminogenic
Decarceration: the practice of moving individuals from institutional settings into community facilities and
programs
Social order: refers to assumptions about society as beieng free of disorder
Power: The ability of a person or group to force others to do what they wish
This perspective tends to focus on laws, law making, administration of law, and the impact of law on
various groups of people, most often the marginalized
Liberal conflict theory
Criminalization: The process whereby a person or group comes to be officially and/or publicly known as
criminal
Value conflicts pereceived as threatening to those in authority will lead to less powerful groups beign
identified as criminal or dlienquent
Normative behavior of one grop violates the normative behavior of a group that has the power and
resources to codify its conduct norms into laws, the result is criminalization of weaker groups
Radical conflict theory
Marx and engels formed the basis of radical conflict theory
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Capitalism is the root cause of crime according to radical conflict theory
Compromised of bourgeoisie who control the means of production, and the proletariat who sell their labour
to the bourgeoisie
Criminal justice system is a system that is used by bourgeoisie to control the proletariat
Critical criminology does not assume eiher free will or determination but a combination of both
2. Opportunity theory
Criminal Event: An event invovlin the convergence of a motivated offender, a suitable tareget or targets,
and the absence of controls
Nto one explanation for crime but may different explanations required for different types of crimes
Decisiosns or situation leading to property crime is differnet for murder
This approach leads to the recognition that it is equally important to understand why a person stops his
involvement in criminal activity
Assumption that people act on free will and make rational coices about engaging in criminal activity
Routine activity theory
Convergence of three components required for a criminal event
oMotivated offenders
oSuitable targets
oAbsence of a capable guardian
If all three of these components remained the same but there was a change in routine everyday activities
then crime could increase
Rational choice theory
Offenders are rational and assess pros and cons
Criminal event decisions are tied more specifically to particular situations and circumstances
3. Integrative theory
Theories are integrated to absorb similar concepts by integrating common concepts, or by integrating
propositions in different theories
Social Learning Theory
Differential Association Reinforcement Theory
Social-Learning Theory: attempts to explain crime and delinquency through notions of imitation and
modelling
Differential association refers to one’s exposure to behavior and norms for learning
Persons voluntary actions are conditioned or shaped by rewards and punishments
4. Social control and social learning
Self derogation theory
Focuses on self esteem and combiens elements of social learning theory control theory strain theory and
labelling theory
We are all motived to maximie our self esteem
Our motivation to conform will be minimized by fmialy, school, and peer interaction
Interactiosn are self defacing
Integrated theory
Integrates strain theory, social bonding, and social learning theory
Anomie combines with social disorganization and inadequate socialization
Weak bonds with social institutions
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Weak institutional bonds lead to stronger bonds and greater associations with delinquent peer groups within
which the learning of delinquent behavior is enhanced
Interactional theory
Interactional thory: posits tht reltionships between deiqneunt behavior and other variabels are not
unidirectional, but rather are bidreictional
Differs from integrated model/control based theories in three ways
1. Does not assume thatvariation in the strength of the bond just happens
oVariation is related to structural variables
2. Does not assume that causal models are stable over the life course
oCasual infleunces vary at different devleopmetnal stages and at different stages of criminal careers
3. It does not assume that causal infleucnes are overwhelmingly unidirectional and that deliqneuncy is
merely an outcome variable
oMany effects ae bidirectional, and dleiqnuency may contribute to the weakening of social bonds as
well as being a consequence of weakend social bonds
5. Social control, strain, and liberal conflict theories
Theory of Differential Oppression
Oppression: The engative outcome experienced by people due to physical force by an oppressor or
structural arrangements that remove or restrict their rights
oEx: laws and political parties
Four principles
1. Adults emphasize order in the homd and school and children are forced to abide by the ruels of
those in authority
2. Adults perceptions establish children as inferior, subordinate and troublemakers
3. The imposition of adult’s conceptions of order on children often become extreme
4. Coercion and force become abuse or neglect, children generalize their abuse of authority to other
adults like police
Adults will adapt in four ways
1. Passive acceptance: child who are obedient out of fear behave much like slaves, prison inmates,
and battered women
a. Hate is repressed which makes them susceptible to low self-esteem, alcoholism, drug
addiction, and the like
2. Exercise of illegitimate, coercive power: child attempt to demonstrate power through using drugs,
sexual misbehavior, alcohol
3. Manipulation of peers: gain control over peers
4. Retaliation: strike back at the people and the institutions that oppress them
Typical response of adults is to enhance their oppression and escalate the problem
6.. Life course theories of crime
Life course Theory: the theory that children undergo a succession of role and status changes as they grow
older
oCriminal behavior is characterized by transitions and pathways or trajectories
oTransitions are short term changes
oPathways are trajectories
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version