Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Criminology (617)
CRIM 210 (37)
Chapter

Crim 210 Distance Ed Chapter Notes

46 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 210
Professor
David Mac Alister

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Crim 210Chapter 1 9132011 63400 PM Introduction Public issuesmatters of public concern that are debated in a variety of forums and usually involve demands for actionBy putting the current issue of youth crime in a historical context we will see that youth crime has always been a part of Canadian society but not always a public issue The Public IssueOver the last 2 decades youth crime has been the subject of considerable public concern and discourse o Discoursehow things are talked about and understood both orally and in written form including formal talk such as theory professional talk such as reports books and media and conversations Media and the Politics of Youth Crime o It is often said that crime is news and so we should not be surprised that the news media devotes as much time as it does to reporting crime events o Amount of emphasis on youth violence is disproportionate to the amount of youth crime that actually involves violence of a serious nature Politics of youth crimethe ways in which youth crime is understood and talked about both formally and informally and the actions laws and policies that derive from this discourse Juvenile Justice Systema system of laws policies and practices designed under the guiding philosophy that children and youth because of their age and maturity should not be subject to criminal law in the same manner as adults Two Opposing Sides o Part of the Liberal federal governments 1995 YOA reform involved a Strategy for Reform of the entire youth justice system an important part of which involved consultations with the public and specialinterest groups o At the heart of the public issue were questions about whether the YOA effectively controlled youth crime the public was clearly divided into two camps on the youth crime issueProblematizea process whereby something someone or some group is defined as a problem The Good Old Daysunfortunately historical data on youth crime and public responses are not readily available since youth crime statistics were not always kept in the matter that they are today 1 There are no consistent prison records until 1835 the year the Kingston Penitentiary the first Canadian prison opened thPenitentiarya 19 century term for prisoners based on a philosophy of penitence and punishment to atone for wrongsBeyond these primary data sources there are a few academic analysis of youth crime that provide secondary data Primary data research information gathered directly from the original source Secondary dataresearch information or data that was originally collected for another purpose ththLawless and Disobedient Youth The 17 and 18 Century o Reports described boys in New Frances as lawless and disobedient and girls as vain and lazy o In 1707 they described the children in New France as hard and ferocious o Crimes involved vandalism petty theft brawling swearing immorality violations of local ordinances and the abandonment of indentured service contracts o Children under 7 were considered incapable of understanding the crime The Colonial Public Issue o The issue for colonial administrators in the territories of Canada was the freedom and independence that young people had relative to their counterparts in the Old World o Working children were considered independent from their parents Causes and Solutions An Era of Control and Punishment o Two factors emerge as perceived causes of youth crimeparents and the fur trade o A very real source of problems came form the active promotion of immigration to the New World tho In the 18 century a variety of disciplinary measures were proposed as solutions to youth crimeMore schools more priests and confinement to settled parts of the colony thA Question of Immorality The 19 Century o Urban problems associated with immigration and poverty continued and thworsened throughout the 19 century 2o By the mid 1800s British and Canadian authorities had developed policies to send Britains orphaned poor and destitute children to Canada as indentured servants The Victorian Public Issueo Throughout the latter half of the 1800s the issue of youth crime seemed to be a moral oneBecause of poverty and destitution brought on by a lack of employment and severe working conditions countless numbers of children and young people were spending a good portion of their lives on city streets which they worked by begging stealing and selling whatever they could to make a living Causes and Solutions An Era of Social Reform o According to Rothman a reform movement swept North America in the latter thhalf of the 19 centuryThe essential tenets of this movement were focus on the individual a widespread belief in the goodness of humanitarian sentiment and above all a belief in the ability of the state and professionals to reform individualsThe emergence of the progressive reform movement marked the birth of rehabilitative philosophy Rehabilitative philosophya belief that the right treatment can change a persons attitudes values andor behaviorThey argued that it was far more effective in the long run to return evil with a good by trying to rehabilitate individuals who had committed crimesImplemented in 1908 the Juvenile Delinquents Act made juvenile delinquent a legal status Juvenile delinquenta concept popularized in the Victorian era referring to child and youth who were considered problematic for a variety of reasonsSome reformers believed that length sentences in reformatories were necessary to rehabilitate young people while others were opposed to institutionalizing young people whether in youth or adult prison thReformatoriesa 19century term for juvenile prisons that were based on a belief in the ability of prisons to reform or change an individual 3
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