Chapter 2 - the actus reus elements of a criminal offence. Introduction criminal conviction requires actus reus - culpable act - and mens rea - guilty mind cannot convict accused unless prosecution can prove beyond a reasonable doubt. The actus reus as a combination of conduct, circumstances and consequences. 3 elements of actus reus: conduct - a voluntary act/omission constituting a central featuer of a crime. Exceptions to the general rule requiring conduct, circumstances and consequences. He did not have legal duty to do so, and was not a parent ex. Browne and greiner are considered boyfriend-girlfriend and was searched by police in drug crackdown; Greiner swallowed bag of drug and it entered her blood system; browne failed to take her immediately to hospital for help. The duty to provide the necessaries of life to dependent persons. Nixon (1990) - had legal duty due to police act and cc to protect prisoner, but aided in assault.