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Week 8 Textbook - Social Structures.docx

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Jay H

EARLY SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND STRAIN THEORIES OF CRIME TibbettsHemmens Section V pgs 315341IntroductionSocial structure theories disregard any biological or psychological variations across individualsCertain groups of individuals are more likely to break the law because of disadvantaged or cultural difference resulting from the way society is structuredEmphasize group differences instead f individual differences o Macro level analysis o Commonly used to explain the propensity of certain racialethnic groups for committing a crime and overrepresentation in prisonEarly Theories of Social Structure Early to Mid 1800sEuropean researchers Auguste Comte AndreMichel Guerry Adolphe QueteletHeavily influenced by the industrial Revolution o Societies transitioning from agriculture economies to industrial based economies o A lot of people moving into the city o Higher rates of crime o American Revolution 1776 and French Revolution 1789 was inspired by the Enlightenment movementRejects tyranny and insisted people should have a voice in how they are governedAugust Comte o Father of sociology o Coined the term sociology o Social staticsaspects of society that relate to stability and social order allowing societies to endure o Social dynamicaspects that alter how societies are structured and pattern the development of societal institutiono Set the stage for the positivistic perspective emphasized social determinism and rejected notion of free will and individual choiceAndreMichel Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet o GuerryFrench lawyerFound that property crimes were higher in wealthy areas while violent crimes was higher in poor areasWealthy had more time to steal o QueteletBelgian researcherCertain types of individuals are more likely to commit crimes young male poor uneducated unemployed individualsGreater inequality gaps between wealth and poverty in the same place tends to excite temptations and passionsRELATIVE DEPRIVATIONAreas with most rapidly changing economic conditions also show high crime rates o Crime is not random but the result of certain types of people committing certain types of crimes in particular places due to the way society is structured and how it distributes resources o Criminality is seen to be deterministic and caused by factors outside of individual controlDurkheim and the Concept of Anomie o Most influential theories in the state of modern structural perspectives on criminality o Developed a general model of societal development largely based on the economiclabor distributionSocieties evolve from simplistic mechanical societymultilayered organic society o Mechanical societiesPrimitive societiesAll members perform the same functionsMaleshuntersFemalesgatherer Constant interaction with embers in the society leading to a strong uniformity of valuesCOLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE Degree to which the individuals of that society think alikeMECHANICAL SOLIDARITYshared norms and values among individuals in the societyLaw functions to enforce conformity of the group o Organic societiesDistribution of labor is highly specificPeople tend to depend on others groups because the of the highly specific division of laborLaws regulate the interactions and maintaining solidarity among groups o Moving from mechanical to organic societies creates huge cultural differences and giant contrasts in normative values and attitudes across groups
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