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Chapter 8

CRIM 316 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Diocesan Priest, Mainline Protestant, Orthodox Judaism


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Sexual Offending in Institutional Settings
Sexual Abuse within Child and Adolescent-Oriented Institutions
Schools
“Educator sexual misconduct is woefully understudied”
Physical, verbal, and visual forms of sexual misconduct are widespread in schools
Specific job characteristics were associated with a higher rate of abuse; teachers whose job involved
individual time with students, such as coaches or music tutors, were more likely to abuse
Limitations:
oSmall samples of clinical or interview data = limit generalizability
oNo consistent definitions of sexual behavior, misconduct or abuse
Child Care Settings
5.5/ every 10,000 children in day care centres and 8.9 / every 10,000 children in families = reported to be
sexually abused (Situational factors  low staff presence)
Moulden et al  age (below 25) + single = risk factors for child sexual victimization among nonfamilial child
care providers; abuse more likely to take place in informal care setting than in formal care setting
(Margolin)
Boy Scouts of America
Majority of victims were Boy Scouts, who typically range in age from 11 to 17; most abuse occur during
camping trip
The BSA now has an extensive youth protection training program
Now has requirement that all employees and volunteers must pass background check in order to be
employed by or work with the organization, and they have developed an extensive training program on
awareness of sexual abuse
Big Brothers Big sisters
Fewer than 10 allegations of sexual abuse per year & ~ half of allegations end in conviction or admission of
guilt
Much like BSA, most of offenders were single and came from various professions
Sexual abuse ranged from inappropriate touching to other sexual acts & commonly occur during camping &
visits to abuser’s house + offenders target emotionally vulnerable children
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Instituted strict screening process that involves a criminal background check for all employees and
volunteers
Athletic Organizations
Abusers coaches & other authority figures (sports medicine professionals, psychologists, and officials of
organization)
Kirby & Greaves  8.6% of respondents had experienced forced sexual intercourse with an authority figure
in their sport & 1.9% of victims were younger than 16 years of age at time of abuse
Target vulnerable children or groom through socialization with family or emotional manipulation about the
sport
Brackenridge  victims reluctant to report abuse out of fear of coach or possibility of blacklisted from their
sport
USA swimming criticized for failing to act upon reports of abuse and conspiring to cover up allegations for
fear that it’s public image would be tarnished
Abuse often goes unreported or, when reported, is not acted upon swiftly, aggressively, or effectively
Professional and Legal Remedies
Gallagher  many institutions respond to abuse, but that preventative actions are preferable
Hanson & Moulder et al  recommend screening applicants for positions involving youth noting that
standard police checks may be insufficient given the low rate of reporting and conviction among
professionals
oScreening techniques should consider match between ind. characteristics & risk inherent in
position/context
“Position of authority” statutes in several states  some states consider sexual contact an offense despite
victim being legal age to consent whereas others consider it an aggravating factor; some states vary by
definitions, etc.  variety in statutes is indicative of the complexities of abuse by individuals in positions of
authority
Sexual Abuse in Religious Institutions
Most media reports about child sexual abuse within religious organizations  Catholic priests
Case of John Geogan that brought all media attention on Catholic Church believed to have sexually
molested over 130 young boys between 1962 and 1993 ; eventually convicted, incarcerated, and killed in
prison by another inmate
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In 2002, thousands of adults reported that they had been sexually abused by Catholic priests when they
were minors. This explosion of reporting led to what is referred as the sexual abuse “scandal” or “crisis” in
the Catholic church
Child Sexual abuse within Non-Catholic Religious Organizations
In both religious and nonreligious organization, abuse is often perpetrated by an adult who has developed
a nurturing and mentoring relationship with the child and has regular unsupervised, access to minors
Protestant
oDonohue  ~10% of Protestant clergy has been involved in sexual misconduct & ~2 or 3% have
sexually abused children
oMoyer  3 insurance companies that provide liability coverage to U.S Protestant churches estimate
more than 260 reports of abuse of minors by clergy, church staff, volunteers, or congregation
members annually
Southern Baptist
oFitzpatrick  this church lacks a hierarchical structure , making it more difficult to track abuse cases
oA website, a SNAP affiliate, currently tracks names of ministers who have been alleged to have
committed sexual misconduct against children and acts as an information and resource centre for
interested parties
Episcopalian
oThis church created detailed procedures about education and responses to abuse (training,
guidelines, videos, and discussions about abuse)  Requires all priests, staff, & laity who work with
children participate
oEpisc. policy & enforcement of child sex abuse serve as model for other mainline Protestant
denominations
Jehova Witnesses
oPolicies based on biblical standards: allegations go before panel of male elders who review the case
privately
oReports may be substantiated in 1 of 2 manners
Child has 2 witnesses to verify his/her account OR Abuse admits his/her actions
oThen they report abuser to Headquarters where abuser’s name is placed in database and banned
from serving in positions of authority (*but guidelines do not discuss role of CRJ, only church
policy)
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