Textbook Notes (369,082)
Canada (162,376)
Criminology (617)
CRIM 316 (22)
Chapter

CRIM 316 CH 1-3.pdf

8 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard

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CRIM 316 SEXUAL OFFENCES CH1 Sex Offences and Offenders IntroductionIncidence of sexual offences decreasing sanction for sex offenders constantly increasing over the last 2 decades but research does not show that such sanctions significantly deter offendersThe perception of sex offenders is the effect of socially constructed realities influenced by existing social and political ideologiesSex offender research today is centered around 3 general topics 1 The factors associated with sexual offending including personal characteristics as well as situational variables 2 Sex offenders risk of recidivism 3 The efficacy of policies and programs for sexy offendersWhat is a Sexual OffencesHistoricallySexual behaviors not for purpose of procreation have waver between social acceptance stigmatization and illegality homosexuality masturbation etc o Some consensual sexual acts are offences incest adultery bigamy prostitutionToday can be broadly categorized in four categorieso Sexual acts with contactTouching intimate parts of the body or penetration either without the victims consent or when one person is incapable of consenting under the lawex Most under this categoryAll contact act touch over clothes forced sexual intercourseo Noncontact sexual behaviourSexual gratification achieved with no contact made between the perpetrator and the victimex Exposure of the genital voyeurism peeping telling children to perform sexual acts o Viewing possessing or producing child pornAny act involving the viewing or producing of any visual material of a child that is for the purpose of sexual gratification of an adultex Sexual contact with children sexual exploitation of children in photosfilms texting sexual pictures of oneself to anothero Sexual solicitation or traffickingBased upon sexual services exchanged for financial or other types of compensationex Prostitution face to face or adult seeking online sexual relationships with adolescents trafficked victims may be adults or minors For most sexual offences there must be a lack of consent on the part of the victim and some level of intent on the part of the offendero Consent is lacking from a sexual act whenThe act is the result of force threat duressA reasonable person would understand that victim no consentdue to a clearimplied statementVictim incapable of consenting below age of consent mentally incapable physically helpless under family services under custody of correctional services etc Prevalence of Sexual Offending and VictimizationMajority of sexual assaults are not reported 19992000 only 31 reportedOffenders o Nearly all the data on sex offenders are related to male population offenders o Female offender cases often underreported and underresearched Victims o Females more likely to have been sexually abused during childhood o Female more likely to disclose abuse o Male victimizationoften under reported o Rates of victimization have decreased in past decadevictimization ratesfemale 17 malein lifetimesOfficial Data on Sexual VictimizationsUCRUniform Crime Reports federal reports of crime reported o Consists of two sections Part I and Part II OffencesPart I offences called index offences divided into categories of violent and property offences 4 violent crimes murder forcible rape robbery aggravated assault 4 property crimes burglary larcenytheft motor vehicle theft arson Part II consists of all other offences simple assaults other sexual offences forgery fraud vandalism embezzlement vice crimes etco StrengthsMost common source of official criminal justice dataReliablemeasures same offences each yearMakes it possible to compare crime rate in jurisdictions of varying sizes
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