Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
SFU (6,000)
CRIM (700)
Chapter

CRIM 316 CH 1-3.pdf


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
CRIM 316 SEXUAL OFFENCES
CH1 Sex Offences and Offenders
Introduction
Incidence of sexual offences decreasing; sanction for sex offenders constantly increasing over the last 2 decades; but research does not
show that such sanctions significantly deter offenders
The perception of sex offenders is the effect of socially constructed realities influenced by existing social and political ideologies
Sex offender research today is centered around 3 general topics:
1. The factors associated with sexual offending including personal characteristics as well as situational variables
2. Sex offenders’ risk of recidivism
3. The efficacy of policies and programs for sexy offenders
What is a Sexual Offences?
Historically - Sexual behaviors not for purpose of procreation have waver between social acceptance, stigmatization and illegality
(homosexuality, masturbation, etc)
o Some consensual sexual acts are offences (incest, adultery, bigamy, prostitution)
Today, can be broadly categorized in four categories:
o Sexual acts with contact
Touching intimate parts of the body or penetration either without the victims consent or when one person is incapable
of consenting under the law
ex: Most under this category - All contact act (touch over clothes, forced sexual intercourse)
o Noncontact sexual behaviour
Sexual gratification achieved with no contact made between the perpetrator and the victim
ex: Exposure of the genital, voyeurism (peeping), telling children to perform sexual acts
o Viewing, possessing, or producing child porn
Any act involving the viewing or producing of any visual material of a child that is for the purpose of sexual
gratification of an adult
ex: Sexual contact with children, sexual exploitation of children in photos/films, texting sexual pictures of
oneself to another
o Sexual solicitation or trafficking
Based upon sexual services exchanged for financial or other types of compensation
ex: Prostitution (face to face), or adult seeking online sexual relationships with adolescents; trafficked
victims may be adults or minors
For most sexual offences, there must be a lack of consent on the part of the victim and some level of intent on the part of the offender.
o Consent is lacking from a sexual act when
The act is the result of force, threat, duress
A reasonable person would understand that victim no consent - due to a clear/implied statement
Victim incapable of consenting (below age of consent, mentally incapable, physically helpless, under family services,
under custody of correctional services, etc)
Prevalence of Sexual Offending and Victimization
Majority of sexual assaults are not reported (1999-2000 only 31% reported)
Offenders
o Nearly all the data on sex offenders are related to male population offenders
o Female offender cases often underreported and under-researched
Victims
o Females more likely to have been sexually abused during childhood
o Female more likely to disclose abuse
o Male victimization often under reported
o Rates of victimization have decreased in past decade victimization rates ¼ female, 1/7 male - in lifetimes
Official Data on Sexual Victimizations
UCR Uniform Crime Reports, federal reports of crime reported
o Consists of two sections: Part I and Part II Offences
Part I: offences called index offences, divided into categories of violent and property offences.
4 violent crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault.
4 property crimes: burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson.
Part II: consists of all other offences, simple assaults, other sexual offences, forgery, fraud, vandalism, embezzlement,
vice crimes, etc.
o Strengths:
Most common source of official criminal justice data
Reliable measures same offences each year
Makes it possible to compare crime rate in jurisdictions of varying sizes

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o Weakness:
Crime is underreported UCR only counts the reported/cleared by arrest cases, but sexual offences are least-
reported, so UCR is not necessarily a valid measure of sexual offences
Hierarchy rule UCR compiles data only on the most serious offences if multiple offences has been committed
within one offence
Uses one definition for each crime, but definitions vary by jurisdiction
Victimization Surveys
o Strengths:
Provide information on ‘dark figure’ of crime, or extent to which crimes are underreported (only 37% reported)
Give reasons why not reported: personal offences, police cannot do much, do not trust police, own criminal behavior,
reputation damage, perpetrator will retaliate
o Weakness: reliability is questionable; do not know info about victim under age 12
However for age 12+ , the survey tells us that
Race and ethnicity no significant distinction, but Blacks victimization highest
Age highest rate of victimization age 16-19
Victim-Offender Relationship more common be abused by nonstranger
Research Estimates
1980’s increase in cases of date rape, rape in marriages and interfamilial abuse
o Cases go unreported because of the stigma that is attached, self blame, dear of not being believed, or desire to protect family or
friend members who committed the offence
o Many who actually serve sentence are stranger rape, used weapons, multiple minor victims
Victim or offender - Heterogeneity group (no specific race, social status, educational level, stable characteristics)
Sex crimes often psychologically motivated, and many similarities among offenders: poor social skills, poor relationships with parents,
drug abuse, abused as children
Studies show varying levels of prevalence of sexual abuse
o 1/6 women has been raped or 1/3 girls is likely to be sexually abused
o 17-22% women, 2-8% men sexually assaulted
o 12.8% female, 4.3 male sexual abuse in their childhood
o Overall prevalence of sexual abuse for M- 13%, F- 30-40%
Official stats show that rates of sexual abuse have declined in past decade
Reporting Sexual Abuse
Sexual crimes are the most underreported offences
o Gender: Victims were more likely to report of the offender was male
o Race: more likely to report if the offender was black (39%) than white (29%)
o Age: highest % of reporting if perpetrator was 12-14 years of age, 40%
o Number of perpetrators: more likely to report if there is 2 perpetrators than 1
o Vic-Off Relationship: more likely to report offences by strangers
o Use of weapon: more likely to report when had weapon (esp firearms)
Most common reason for reporting: prevent future violence
o Most common reason NOT report because of privacy issues
Empirical research (adult retroactive studies) also study victims under age of 12
o High percentage of victim who report do so many years after abused; and many do not disclose
Only 1/3 report before 18, average age of discloser was 25.9
Child disclose abuse at the time (41%); average age = 8
Adult who disclose later (64%); average age = 10
Majority waited more than 8 years to report
o Why child delay discloser? Abuse in private, abuser encourages secrecy children obedient to adults, helpless and maintain
secrecy that adult encourages child becomes entrenched in abusive situation, begins to feel guilt and responsibility for the
abuse, continue to accommodate perpetrator child delays discloser because of promise of secrecy and feelings of guilt and
shame after delayed, victim retracts the report due to disbelief about the abuse by those trusted by the victim
o Gender of victim: females victims more likely to report
o Gender of perpetrator: offences by female less often reported female offender often within family, seen as caregivers and
incapable of hurting children male are reluctant to report because of shame of being victim; some also do not view actions as
abuse
Telescoping
When victim reports their crime or complete victimization survey long after the crime occurred, they often remember the crime as
occurring earlier or later than it actually happened
o Forward telescoping: recalling an event that occurred prior to the reporting period in question (report age 6, but actually
happened at age 4)
o Backward telescoping: recalling an even that occurred after the reporting period
Forward more common and the more prominent the event, the more likely to forward telescope
Bounded interviews (interviews after a previous visit occurred) showed much higher accuracy level in data gathered than in unbounded
interviews (no previous visit with respondent)
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

CH2 Historical Perspective on Sexual Behaviours
Historical Perspectives
Greek and Mediterranean culture same sex conduct displayed in visual arts, 6th century B.C.
o Plato’s Symposium show relationship between Socrates and a young attractive male
o Men-boy relationships were acceptable and considered beautiful - Vases and murals show scenes of older males touching
genitals of nude young males; men wrote love poems about young boys
o Women not respected, viewed as destructive to men marriage only necessary for procreation, sexuality not linked to marriage,
so sexual pleasure could thus be received outside the marriage
o Common for young boys to be sold into slavery, and socially prominent men have slaves for their own sexual use
o Women also in homosexual practices (eg Sappho, residents of Lesbos (where word lesbian is derived) wrote love poems to
women
Rome
o Boy brothels common, Romans believed that sexual relationships with young boys would aid their mental development
o Subjected boys (esp slaves) to violence and abuse
o Sadistic activities as entertainment (eg watching women and children being raped, sex with animals)
Egyptians
o Also admired male and accepted homosexuality
o Eg Polygamy, incest, sexual play among children, sexual touching of children by adults
o Brother-sister marriage common (esp middle class)
o Adult-children intercourse taboo, but adults commonly sucked penises of boys to prepare them for sexual activity later
o Sexual activity very open; the pharaoh (ruler in Egypt) expected to have extensive sexual activity with wives and other women
while traveling
Middle Ages
o Influenced by the church -- homosexuality became a crime in Europe all sexual acts not for procreation were sinful
o Sodomy = ‘unnatural’ sexual acts (masturbation, bestiality, anal intercourse, any position not missionary) by 14th century, was
illegal throughout Europe, perpetrator sentenced to death
o 18th C children sent to workhouses and brothels, became victims of murder, assault or rape
o But main focus of danger continued to be within home
Other religions
o Polygamy still regularly practiced by Muslims, Mormans, Hebrews
o Hebrew very straight no homosexuality, married men who masturbated = adultery
o Native American/African however practiced similar to Greeks evidence of homosexuality in tribes, sexual play among
children; believed child-adult activity was necessary for sexual development
Changing Perceptions of Deviant Sexual Behaviour: The 20th Century
20th C Progressive Era Industrial Revolution, women enter workplace in large numbers, participated in social activities, experiencing
unprecedented freedom, courts began to regularly monitor sexual behaviors
Researchers during this era focus on sexual offender problem as a medical problem labeled pathological, sent to mental hospitals; study
correlation with hormones, developing organic treatments
o 1950s started to think problems was behavioral in nature; 1970s began to link to social problems, taking into consideration
the effects of cognitive processes and research continues today
Societal reaction follows repetitive pattern emotionally charged sex crime occurs panic erupts, legislation proposed, political pressure
legislation enact, laws have limited utility, fall into disuse, repeats
1885-1935 The First Wave of Panic
1880s - Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Karfft-Ebing
First claimed that deviant sexual acts were the result of psychopathological problems in an individual
Attributed sexual disorders to psychological abnormalities, stating that sexual disorders were permanent part of a
person’s character and could not be changed -- concludes sexual deviants/homosexuals were mentally ill, pathological
loathsome and a threat to social hygiene
o Havelock Ellis - Did not consider deviates to be mentally ill/pathological; did not believe homosexuals could be cured
o Sigmund Freud - Believed that deviant sexual behaviour was root in psychopathology, attributed sexual deviations to character
disorders
1889 Public also began receiving information form social groups eg Women’s Christian Temperance Union lobbying for the
modification of age of consent, claiming many men taking advantage of young working-class girls
o Child prostitution was rampant, increased number of brothels, frequent by respectable men in cities, esp New York
1910-1915 reached its first climax, many sex-related child homicides, many attributed to serial killers (Jack the Rippers)
o Indeterminate sentences introduced, often affected sex offenders
o Focus of research was biological/physiological, as for remedies (eg eugenics, practice of sterilization, surgical castration)
o Early research focus on serious offenders (often with psychiatric problems) + their rate of recidivism - inaccurate?
1920’s the panic over sexual killers subsided
o Focus began to turn away from stranger assaults and toward child molestation and incest
o Venereal disease among children attributed to child abuse by relatives or prostitution, rather than rape
o WCTU achieved goal; raised age of consent 16 to 18
o Media focus more on organized crime and Prohibition
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version