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Chapter

CRIM 316 Chapter Notes -Pwn, Cognitive Distortion, Viol


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard

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CH 5: Types and Typologies of Sexual Offenders
Reducing recidivism best accomplished by understanding/identifying characteristics of offender and when they will offend
Researchers created typologies / classification schemes to do this
But - Sex offenders often heterogeneous and many do not fit into discrete categories
The usefulness of these classification system may be questionable since few offenders are ‘specialists’ instead are
generalists who commit more nonsexual crimes than sexual ones
Specialization and Generalization of Offending Behavior
General career /persistent criminals = Studies show that a small # of people are responsible for large % of all criminal acts
o These people are often “generalists”, committing multiple types of crime and do not “specialize” in a particular
type of crime throughout their career
o Sex offender = most are generalists as well (so they commit sex crimes and many other crimes)
Sex offender (whole) specialize less than general offenders
Child abuser specialize more than rapist; but comparable to nonsexual offenders
Both child/rapist likely to commit property offence; rapist violent offence (more than sexual offences)
Juvenile sexual offending not predictive on likelihood in adulthood best predictor of adult sexual
offending was a large number of nonsexual offenses
Level of specialization is important in regard to treatment and policy development
o Many current treatment programs are based on assumption that offenders are a unique group who specialize in sex
crimes
Eg Sex offender-specific treatment not appropriate for offender who has career of property offences + a
single sex offence
o Registration and notification policies based on assumption that offenders are highly recidivistic
Research show sex offender recidivism rates are relatively low: less than 14% will commit another sex
offence; Only 36% convicted again within five years
Because of heterogeneous nature of sex offender, no system of classification based on type/motivation has universal validity
but if understand common characteristics, can help treat and manage
Typologies of Rapists
Rapist not homogeneous group, but research found some common characteristics:
o Cognitive factors in many aggressive offenders = negative views of women, endorsement of rape myths, condoning
violence, and displaying a hyper identification with the masculine role
o Personality deficits = sense of worthlessness, low self-esteem, sense of vulnerability, impaired social relations, a
dysphonic mood state, a mismanagement of aggression
o Social inadequacy = lead to negative emotional states low self-esteem, stress, anxiety, anger, hostility,
aggressive
Rapist often being committing deviant sexual acts at a young age 50% attempted/committed first deviant sexual act before
18
o Sex drive at puberty, important to develop proper socio-sexual interactions, acquire inhibitory controls
Rapists often classified by primary motivation of their offence: sexual or nonsexual
o Not exclusive or exhaustive; most common categories, many will fit in multiple
o These typologies do not take into consideration the relationship b/t offender/victim can be different with strangers
and acquaintances no matter the motivation
o Rape with nonsexual needs
Studies show that some rapist are aroused more by consensual sex (so rape not driven by sexual need)
Rapist score equally to non-rapists when exposed to violent erotic material
High incidence of sexual dysfunction during rapes (no erection or ejaculation) would not happen of rape
was purely sexual
Sexual
Compensatory
“exclusively
sexual””
May have “courtship disorder” = inability to form normal intimate relationships,
lack ability to establish a satisfying love relationship
Feeling of inadequacy, sexual inferiority
Motivated purely by sexual needs = but view violence as only way to get sex
Gentleman rapist = Use as little force as possible to achieve sexual gratification
Sadistic
Achieves sexual gratification from victims’ pain/fear pain gets them to becomes
sexually excited
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