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CRIM 316 CH5 Typologies.pdf

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CRIM 316
Eric Beauregard

CH 5 Types and Typologies of Sexual OffendersReducing recidivism best accomplished by understandingidentifying characteristics of offender and when they will offendResearchers created typologiesclassification schemes to do thisButSex offenders often heterogeneous and many do not fit into discrete categoriesThe usefulness of these classification system may be questionable since few offenders are specialistsinstead are generalists who commit more nonsexual crimes than sexual onesSpecialization and Generalization of Offending BehaviorGeneral career persistent criminalsStudies show that a smallof people are responsible for largeof all criminal actso These people are often generalists committing multiple types of crime and do not specialize in a particular type of crime throughout their career o Sex offendermost are generalists as well so they commit sex crimes and many other crimesSex offender whole specialize less than general offendersChild abuser specialize more than rapist but comparable to nonsexual offendersBoth childrapist likely to commit property offence rapistviolent offencemore than sexual offencesJuvenile sexual offending not predictive on likelihood in adulthoodbest predictor of adult sexual offending was a large number of nonsexual offensesLevel of specialization is important in regard to treatment and policy development o Many current treatment programs are based on assumption that offenders are a unique group who specialize in sex crimes Eg Sex offenderspecific treatment not appropriate for offender who has career of property offencesa single sex offence o Registration and notification policies based on assumption that offenders are highly recidivisticResearch show sex offender recidivism rates are relatively low less than 14 will commit another sex offence Only 36 convicted again within five yearsBecause of heterogeneous nature of sex offender no system of classification based on typemotivation has universal validitybut if understand common characteristics can help treat and manageTypologies of RapistsRapistnot homogeneous group but research found some common characteristics o Cognitive factors in many aggressive offendersnegative views of women endorsement of rape myths condoning violence and displaying a hyper identification with the masculine role o Personality deficitssense of worthlessness low selfesteem sense of vulnerability impaired social relations a dysphonic mood state a mismanagement of aggression o Social inadequacylead to negative emotional stateslow selfesteem stress anxiety anger hostility aggressive Rapist often being committing deviant sexual acts at a young age50 attemptedcommitted first deviant sexual act before 18 o Sex drive at puberty important to develop proper sociosexual interactions acquire inhibitory controlsRapists often classified by primary motivation of their offence sexual or nonsexual o Not exclusive or exhaustive most common categories many will fit in multiple o These typologies do not take into consideration the relationship bt offendervictimcan be different with strangers and acquaintances no matter the motivation o Rape with nonsexual needs Studies show that some rapist are aroused more by consensual sex so rape not driven by sexual needRapist score equally to nonrapists when exposed to violent erotic materialHigh incidence of sexual dysfunction during rapes no erection or ejaculationwould not happen of rape was purely sexual May have courtship disorderinability to form normal intimate relationships Compensatory lack ability to establish a satisfying love relationship exclusivelyFeeling of inadequacy sexual inferioritysexualMotivated purely by sexual needsbut view violence as only way to get sex Sexual Gentleman rapistUse as little force as possible to achieve sexual gratification Achieves sexual gratification from victims painfearpain gets them to becomes Sadisticsexually excited
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