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Chapter

CRIM 316 Chapter Notes -Sexual Assault, Critical Role, Inedia


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard

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CH#8:#Sexual#Offending#in#Institutional#
Settings!
Sexual victimization is almost always perpetrated by an individual known to the victim
Abuse of minors - common in families and institutions - where adults form mentoring
and nurturing relationships with adolescents, schools, religious organizations, sports and
social organizations
Sexual assault of adult - in relationship of unequal power (teacher and student) or in
closed institutions (prisons and military)
The environment plays a role in which abuse occurs and the opportunities that offenders
have to commit sexual offence plays a critical role in whether the victimization occurs
Sexual!Abuse!within!Child!and!Adolescent4Oriented!Institutions!
Schools
o Physical, verbal and visual forms of sexual misconduct are widespread in schools
o Majority offender are teachers
o Specific job characteristics associated with a higher rate of abuse - job involved
individual time with students (eg coaches, music tutors)
Child Care Settings
o Certain situation factors increase abuse - eg low staff presence; in informal care
settings
o Age and being single were risk factors for child sexual victimization among no
familial child care providers
Boy Scouts of America
o Before, scout leaders were able to spend time alone, creating opportunities for
abuse to occur
o Victim = boy scots, age rage 11-17 – typically abused during camping trips
o Boyle argues that sexual abuse is more common - than accidental deaths and
serious injuries combined
o BSA began keeping records, but many statistics not released, most cases are
settled out of court – hard to know how many actually happened
o BSA now require all employees and volunteers pass a background check +
developed extensive training program on the awareness of sexual abuse
o Min. 2 adults at every event + prohibit adults from being left alone with
individual scouts
o Recently criticized for not making training program mandatory + prohibiting
homosexual leaders
Big Brothers Big Sisters
o Organization that provides mentorship to economically disadvantaged youths
o The majority of offenders were single and came from various professions
o Sexual abuse ranged from inappropriate touching to other sexual acts – during
camping trips or visits to abuser’s house
o Offenders also appeared to target emotionally vulnerable children

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o Most abuser convicted involved in multiple organizations involving children
(scouts, child care, schools)
o Now implemented strict screening process with criminal background check
Athletic Organizations
o Abusers are mostly commonly coaches; but may also include other authority
figures such as sports medicine professionals, sport psychologist, and officials of
organization
o Some individual sports (tennis, swimming, gymnastics) where coaches spend time
alone with a single athlete; but also happen in team sports (Basketball, etc)
o Those reported in media had 10-12 alleged victims
o Target vulnerable children, groom them through socialization with the family or
emotional manipulation about the sport
o Found that athletes did not id or define abusive behavior till years later
o Victims were reluctant to report abuse out of fear of their coach and possibility
of being blacklisted from their sport
o Power of coach not questioned al challenged
o USA swimming – criticized fro failing to act on reports, conspiring to cover up
allegation
o Abuse often goes unreported, even when reported is not acted upon swiftly,
aggressively, or effectively
Professional and Legal Remedies
Recommend screening applicants to these position – standard police check is not enough
given low rate of reporting and conviction
Importance of situational factors – screening techniques should consider the match
between individual characteristics and risks inherent in the position or context
New legislation regarding ‘position of authority’ – some consider offense even if victim
legal age; some say aggravating factor;
o Definition of authority also depends = some require evidence of coercion, some
automatically qualify just by virtue of position they hold
Sexual!Abuse!in!Religious!Institutions!
Most media reports about abuse w/i religious organization - focused on Catholic priests
Committed by religious leaders who had been trusted to work and care for minors, w/
nurturing and mentoring relationship with the child; has regular access to minors, often
unsupervised
High profile cases – severity and duration – some over 100 victims for 20 years
Non catholic groups: Protestant / Southern Baptist / Episcopalian / Jehovah Witnesses /
Mormons / Jewish Community
o Scope unknown, estimates on prevalance not known, not enough studies
Why families do not report?: Strong community pressure feat it would bring same to
community, tarnish family reputation, concern from stigma of abuse, social ostracism
following reporting, denial, repercussions to entire family such as not being able to marry
daughters and obtain employment
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