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Chapter 3

CRIM 316 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Transvestic Fetishism, Sexual Fantasy, Sexual Arousal


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 316
Professor
Eric Beauregard
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3: Etiology of Sexually Deviant Behavior
End of the 1960s: theoretical approach to understanding sexual offenders change - Few explanations based
on abnormalities beyond control of individual, but more one incorporating behavioral & cognitive-behavior
approaches
Traditional explanations all lack empirical support  recent explanations rooted in empirical research,
emphasizing developmental, interpersonal, personality, epidemiological, sociological, and situational
variables
Paraphilias and Other Sexual Disorders
Features of all paraphilias: recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies or urges involving either
nonhuman objects, suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner, children, or other nonconsenting
persons
oThis causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of
functioning
8 primary paraphilias in DSN 1V-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, frotteurism, sadism, masochism, fetishism,
transvestic fetishism, and pedophilia
o* A person can’t be convicted of pedophilia, but instead a person diagnosed with pedophilia may
sexually abuse a child and be convicted of rape, sexual abuse, aggravated sexual abuse, etc.
Most paraphiliac acts do not come to attention of authorities for several reasons:
oPrivate acts that take place in homes
oOnly come to attention when they become habitual
oInvolves a victim  often these acts take place quickly and victim may not get sufficient view of
perpetrator or not know they were subject to this abuse (ex. voyeurism)
oResults in criminal act
*TABLE on definitions of types of paraphilia* p. 46
Noncontact and Minimal Contact Paraphilias
Exhibitionism  Exposure of genitals to stranger –almost exclusively male, though some female
oMany fantasize that stranger is aroused by exposure and go home and masturbate to this fantasy
oExpose frequently many times before caught & arrested
oHighest known number of sexual offenses per offender
oOften experience loneliness, intimacy deficits & higher level of arousal to consensual adult sexual
relations
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Fetishism Sexual fantasies and urges involving nonliving objects
oObject of fetish is required for sexual excitement (Ex. plushophilia (stuffed animals); urophilia
(urine)
oSexual attraction may centre on behaviors (ex. stepping on something) or body parts
Transvestic fetishism  Men who keep collection of women’s clothing and intermittently use it to cross-
dress
oOnly heterosexual males or males interested in women
oWhile dressed, usually will masturbate and imagine he is the object of his sexual fantasy
oFor some, cross-dressing creates peace of mind, while some severely distressed about need to do
so
Frotteurism  Touching & rubbing against nonconsenting person (almost exclusively male)– In crowded
places
oUsually fantasize about having exclusive relationship with this person & will masturbate later on
about it
Voyeurism  Observation of unsuspecting individuals in process of disrobing or engaging in sexual activity
oNO sexual activity is sought with the “victim” through the voyeur may masturbate while watching
oSome offenders who commit serious sexual offenses such as rape often begin deviant behavior by
“peeping”
oMost paraphiliacs do not become violent though some voyeurs eventually desire sexual contact
NOS (”Not Otherwise Specified”)  Ex. telephone scatologia: urge to make obscene phone calls
Common element of noncontact/ minimal contact paraphilia: offender excited by his behavior and
masturbates in response to behavior later – the offender misperceives shock, anger, or fear as sexual
excitement
High-Contact Paraphilias
Serious paraphilias are those involving violence, children or other nonconsenting persons
Pedophilia  Sexual attraction to prepubescent children – if desire is acted upon , could cause significant
harm
oTo be classified as pedophile: Have recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or
behavior involving prepubescent child over a period of time + at least 16yo & at least 5 years older
than child
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o*not all child sexual abusers are pedophiles and vice versa – not all child sexual abusers are driven
by sexual needs and not all pedophiles act on these intense sexual urges
oMany children who are sexually abused are adolescents. This type of paraphilia = ephebophilia/
hebophilia
Sexual Masochism (receiving)  Act of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
oSome are acts on their own (ex. binding themselves), some are acts committed with partners (ex.
bondage)
Sexual Sadism (performing)  Sexual excitement from the psychological or physical suffering of another
person
oCan cause little damage (ex. humiliating) or potentially lots of damage (ex. Hypoxia: deprivation of
oxygen)
oOften increase severity over time and those diagnosed with APD may cause serious injury or even
death
oInterest typically develop in adolescence, with interests piqued through masochistic masturbatory
practices
Many sadists & masochists experience both these paraphilias  sadomasochism
oMany “normal” partners partake in these activities – illustrates how changing societal acceptance
of acts once considered deviant is modified overtime, resulting in acts no longer being taboo
Brown and others (1992) case  showed that state has right to interfere/ intervene in private sexual
encounters even though their behavior constitutes a “private morality” because of the harm resulting from
the acts
Autoerotic asphyxia: activity that constricts oxygen during masturbation with a strangulation device
oSexual excitement comes from ritualistic behavior, oxygen deprivation, danger, and fantasy
Bestiality  sexual activity with animals (*any sexual activity with animals is prohibited by law in U.S.)
oThis is not always a paraphilia  In order to be diagnosed with a paraphilia – zoophilia – the
individual must have a sexual attraction to animals that fits the criteria of a paraphilia
Necrophilia  sexual attraction to dead bodies (3 types)
oPseudo necrophile (AKA. Fantasy necrophile)  fantasize about sex with dead bodies or had sex
with dead bodies only periodically – prefers partner to be alive but pretend to be dead
oRegular necrophila  regularly has sexual intercourse with dead bodies – attracted to corpses and
frequently works in occupation where there is access to dead bodies
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