Textbook Notes (363,149)
Canada (158,223)
Criminology (610)
CRIM 355 (15)
Chapter 1

chapter 1 textbook introduction

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 355
Gail Anderson

Chapter 1Introduction11 sections of Largest forensic science organization in worldAmerican 1Criminalistics aka Forensic science interchangeabledescribe services Academy of of a crime laboratory Forensic ScienceCriminalistforensic scientistscientist in crime lab an active participant in criminal justice system2Digital and multimedia sciences3Engineering sciences4General5Jurisprudence6Odontology7Pathologybiology8Physical anthropology9Psychiatrybehavioural sciences10Questioned documents11Toxicology CSI effectDramatization of FS on TV led public to believe every crime scene will yield forensic evidence and produces unrealistic expectations that a prosecutors case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic evidenceSome believe this may detract search for truth and justice in courtsCSI showsgreatly increased public awareness of use of science in criminal and civil investigations but simplifiedscientific procedures to fit airtimeunrealistic expectations of FS skills real worldtasks delegated to different people in different parts of criminal systemprocedures could take daysyears not minutesfalse image of DNA evidenceSir Arthur Conon Considerable influence on popularizing scientific crime detection methods Doylethrough fictional character Sherlock Holmesfirst applied newly developing principle of serology fingerprinting firearms identification questioneddocument examination before value first recognized an accepted by investigators Study in Scarlet Important Earliest contributions to formulating disciplescontributors to 1Mathieu Orfilafather of forensic toxicologyfirst scientific treatise of forensic sciencedetection of poisons and effects on animals2Alphonse Bertillonfirst scientific system of personal identification Began to develop science of anthropometrysystematic procedure of taking series of body measurements as means of distinguishing one individual from another later replaced by fingerprinting but before thought as most accurate method of personal identification Father of criminal identification3Francis Galtonfirst definitive study of fingerprints and developed methodology of classifying them for filingfirst proof supporting uniqueness of his method of personal identification4Leone Lattesdevised simple procedure to determine blood group of dried bloodstain for criminal investigationLandsteinerdiscovered blood can be grouped into categoriesABABO5Calvin Goddardestablished comparison microscope as indispensable tool of modern firearms examinerdetermine whether particular gun fired bullet requires comparison of bullet with one thats been testfired from suspects weapon 6Albert Osbornprinciples of document examinationacceptance of documents as scientific evidence by courts Questioned DocumentBook7Walter McCroneworlds preeminent microscopistadvocate for applying microscopy to analytical problems especially FS casesUse of microscopy and other analytical methodologies to examine evidence 8Hans Grosswrote first treatise describing application of scientific disciples to field of criminal investigation Criminal Investigationbookdetailed assistance investigators could expect from fields of microscopy chemistry physics mineralogy
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