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Canada (158,169)
Criminology (610)
CRIM 355 (15)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.doc

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 355
Gail Anderson

Chapter 3 Physical EvidenceCommon types of 1Blood semen salivadriedliquidinclude cigarette butts that may contain physical evidencesaliva residuessubstancessubjected to serological biochemical analysis to determine origins2Documentsany handwritingtypewriting submittedauthenticity or source can be determined ex paper ink indented writings obliterations burnedcharred documents3Drugsany substance seized in violation of law in sale manufacture distributions use4Explosivesany device containing explosive chargeobjects removed form explosion scenesuspected to contain residues 5Fibersnaturalsynthetic fibertransfermay be useful to establish relation between objectspeople6Fingerprintslatentvisible7Firearms and ammunitionfirearmdischargedintact ammunition suspected in crime8Glassglass particlefragment transferred during crimeinclude windowpanes with holes by bullet or other projectile 9Hairanimalhuman10Impressionstire markings shoe prints soft soil depressions other tracks glove and fabric impressions bite marks in skinfood11Organsphysiological fluidstoxicologydetect possible drugspoisons include blood to be analyzed for presence of alcoholdrugs12Paintliquiddried that may been transferred from surface to object etc ex car crash13Petroleum productsex gasoline residues from arson or grease and oil stains 14Plastic bagsex garbage bagdisposable polyethylene bagdrughomicide associate bag with a similar bag in passion of a suspect15Plastic rubber other polymersremnants of manufactured materialslink to possession of suspect16Powder residuesitem suspected of containing firearm discharge residues17Serial numbersstolen property submitted to lab to restore erased identification numbers 18Soil and mineralsall items that contains it that could link personobject to certain location ex soil embedded in shoessafe insulation on garments19Tool marksany object suspected of containing impression of another object served as tool in crime ex crowbar screwdriver impressed intoscrape wall surface20Vehicle lightsexamine headtaillightsdetermine light onoff at time of impact21Woodother vegetative matterwood fragments sawdust shavings or vegetative matter on garmentstools IdentificationProcess of determining substances physical or chemical identity drug analysis species determination explosive residue analysistypical examples Determine identity with near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques permitex identify chemical composition of illicit drug identify gasoline residues form a fire or identify if blood is dog or cat or humanidentification of specific physical or chemical substance to exclusions of all other possible substances1 Test procedures for specific standard materialsRecorded and used repeatedly to provide identity of suspect materials ex suspected heroin powdered must be identical to previously obtained heroin sample 2 Numbertype of tests to identify substance need to be sufficient to exclude other substances ComparisonProcess of ascertaining whether two or more objects have common originSubject suspect specimenstandardreference specimen to same testsexaminationsEx place suspect at certain location because hair found at crime scene similar
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