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CRIM 355 (15)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6.doc

6 Pages

Course Code
CRIM 355
Gail Anderson

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Chapter 6Forensic anthropology Forensic Broadapplication of theory and methods of anthropology to forensic anthropologyproblemsMostspecialists in physical anthropologystudy of human biological function and variation particularly skeletal biologyRecentlyincreasing important roles in recovery of human remains but cultural anthropologists not often involved in forensic casework Predominant forensicneed expertise from medicolegal contextinvestigation of death and injury for criminal or civil legal purposed Physical anthropologistability to understand forms and variations of human skeletoncomplements forensic pathologist emphasis on soft tissueApplication of knowledge regarding human skeletal biologyfoundation but expanded by some specialist to include 1Forensic taphonomyinterpretation of primarily outdoor death scenes and postmortem processes2Forensic archaeologyrecovery of scattered or buried remains3Extrapolate of soft tissue form based on skeletal form eg Facial reproductionapproximation4Biomechanical interpretation of sharp and blunt forces injuries primarily to boneExamine human remains3 tasks 1Identify victimat least providing a biological profile age sex stature ancestry pathology individual features anomalies2Reconstructing postmortem period based on remains condition and recovery context3Provide data regarding the death event including evidence of trauma during perimortem period4If participated in recoverythey need to document recovery processes and forensic taphonomy of siteRecovery and examination of remainsmultidisciplinary teamcompetencies and level of expertisework collaborativelyshare knowledge and skills Serve as consultants to medical examiner coroner or law enforcement body testify in court most parttimemost academic employment at collegeParticipate in forensic teams internationalmobilized to investigate mass fatalities war crimesagainst humanity genocideDirect body recoveries in outdoor settingspreferredcan describe and interpret taphonomic context if cant then need descriptioncan return to sceneto explore Physical Study human physical variation and evolution in relationship to behavioural anthropologists patternscultureExplanation about patterns of human shape and seize skeletal dental soft tissue morphology growth and development pathology population differencespopulation gene pool change evolution theoryMost specialize in human osteogloy and odontologybones and teeth survive long timeinclude study skeletal and dental functional anatomy physiology pathology and variationsTaphonomystudy of decaying organisms over time and how they become fossilized if they do Postmortem changes normal decomposition mummification saponification alternation and scattering by scavengers movement and modification by water freezing etc estimate time since deathreconstruct place o death data on cause of death knowledge regarding taphonomy to interpret remains Archaeologymethodsimportant tools for anthropologists especially if remains buried or scattered outdoorprovide methods and techniques to recover and interpret remote sensing methodscommoncan locate human remainsaerialinfrared photography groundpenetrating radar metal detectorsprecise mapping manual or computerbasedessential to document horizontal and vertical layout of sceneposition and location of remainsassociated materialsspatial relationslayers of burial sediments
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