CRIM 380 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-4: Uptodate, Zoophilia, Homicide

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13 Apr 2012
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CHAPTER ONE
2. Briefly discuss the history of the Internet, then consider its most recent advances.
-1959, US interest to build a communication network as a defense mechanism against nuclear
attack from the Soviet Union
- Baran goal to build an electronic communication system that would continue to function even
if large portions were wiped out
- system built on a network of nodes whereby “message blocks” would separate a message into
small segments which could be transmitted separately known as “packet-switching”
-ARPANet-connect computers to one another over dial up telephone lines, there were four major
sites [UCLA, Standford, Utah, UC Santa Barbara]
- this was controlled by IMPs (interface message processors) which are large computers that
interconnect the network, send and receive data, check for errors and route data to its intended
destination
-rapid expansion of networks from 1973-1975 using a TCP/IP protocol (send and receive
information) and the collection of different networks became known as the Internet
-all computers have a unique IP Address which is assigned by ICANN (International Corporation
for Assigned Names and Numbers)
-in 1980‟s computer scientist developed the World Wide Web which is a multi-media application
distributed across the Internet and the graphical user interface (mouse and keyboard to interact
with the computers operating system)
-recent advances: protective software, video conversations, telephone calling, creating
videos/enhancing pictures
3. Are virtual communities just like real-life communities? How are they similar or
different?
Similar: - people have a common goal & are engaged in ethical or unethical behavior/activity
-both virtual and real-life communities support their members (emotionally,
psychologically)
-members feel a sense of belonging by offering advice & encouragement to each other
(ex. online pedophile networks- fuel „cognitive distortions‟ that sex with children is okay)
Different: -people in virtual communities are harder to capture and they often go unpunished
(anonymity concept)
- virtual communities more criminogenic than real-life communities because the internet
extends enormous jurisdictional boundaries
-crimes are more sophisticated in virtual communities with the assistance of tools like
computers, cameras, phones
-virtual communities are easily accessible and affordable to most people
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-training is easily provided in virtual communities (ex/ Neo-fights-download attack kits)
-transaction costs are lowered in virtual communities (ex/ robbing a bank)
4. Do most cybercrime offences consist of traditional crimes perpetrated by new means or
are the new crimes altogether?
-most cybercrime offences are traditional crimes perpetrated by new means known as a quasi-
traditional crime
Ex/ phishing, spam-in the form of email, child pornography
5. Why are some individuals and companies reluctant to report cybercrime victimization?
Individuals: - victims find it difficult to determine the amount of damage caused by
cybercriminals
- don‟t realize they are victimized until long after the fact (micro-fraud: small
amounts that go unnoticed however over time they can add up to a lot of money for
banks)
- feel damage is too minimal to justify the hassle of reporting
- fear of re-victimization by the perpetrator
- feel the police will not help them and there is no point in filing a report because
police tend to give priority to offences that are local. Cyber crimes are small in impact and fall
outside the localized sphere of most law enforcement activities.
Company: more concerned with civil liabilities, protecting their assets and ensuring their
systems are working properly
-risk company‟s stock value, existing/future customers
-feel its better to handle matters internally especially if intrusion was caused by a
company employee
-risk of bad publicity
-“copycat crimes”- a criminal act that is modeled or inspired by a previous crime that has
been reported in the media or described in fiction.
6. What are some of the common myths about computer crime?
-the internet is unsafe for ordinary individuals
-computer crime incidents are on the rise
-computer criminals are hard to capture and they often go unpunished
-computer crime incidents are under-reported
-the internet is criminogenic
-many cybercrimes overlap
-police focus on the tip of the iceberg for cybercrime
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7. What do you think society’s perception of cybercriminals is? Do you think the media
stereotypes all or certain kinds of cybercriminals?
In my opinion (considering the fact that Im taking a Cyber crime course) I think society is not
aware of how dangerous cyber criminals are. Cyber criminals are extremely sophisticated, even
more than our justice system and police officers. The Internet gives criminals free access to a
wealth of information and resources to facilitate harmful and illicit activities. I believe society is
unaware that there many different types of cybercrime:
Ex/ dissemination of malware, hacking, denial of service, child luring, identity fraud, identity
theft, child pornography, bullying, stalking, spam, web-based etc.
Society may also not know that cyber-criminals attack in an automated fashion whereby their
crime is committed very quickly against a large pool of potential targets. Many cyber criminals
move to safe havens after they commit their crime. “Systemac reports that roughly $276 million
worth of goods and information is available on the online black markets”-scope of the issue.
I think the media stereotypes all kinds of cyber criminals. They are stereotyped as
technologically sophisticated [the reality is many of them are not (ex/ attack kits)], lack morals,
ruthless, etc.
8. In what ways do cybercrime offences differ from real-space crimes?
- cybercrime offences take place in an intangible environment as opposed to a tangible one
which is incapable of being perceived by the sense of touch
-an absence of spatial and temporal constraints, cyberspace extends beyond jurisdictional
boundaries making it very difficult to regulate and very open (large volume on a global scale)
they are automated which means attacks are carried out extremely quickly against a large pool of
potential targets.
- awareness of safe havens (countries where cybercrime laws don‟t exist)
-harms associated with cybercrime offences are financial and emotional (Ex/ cyber dating)
-anonymous interactions, can create an entirely new identity for yourself
-the computer is an important instrument/tool to facilitate crime, other tools include cell phones,
fax machines, digital cameras etc
9.What are some of the difficulties associated with estimating the true social and financial
impact of cybercrime on the Canadian economy?
-lack of reporting
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