Session 10 REDD Mitigation.docx

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Developmt &Sustainability
DEVS 201
James Busumtwi- Sam

REDD Mitigation  tropical deforestation is a major driver of climate change  mitigation strategy name Reduction Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) o tackle emissions due to forest loss in developing countries o REDD’s implementation presents several political and scientific challenges Introduction  Ecosystem services provided by forests are widely acknowledged  land use changes plays a major role in determining sources and sinks of carbon  REDD aims at slowing down rate that tropical forests are degraded and deforested o created by United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCC) o low cost mitigation mechanism o financial incentives (carbon credits) to the countries for preserving tropical forests o incentives proportional to the amount of avoided emissions in a business as usual (BAU) scenario o allocation of carbon credits requires accurate estimates of carbon stocks preserved from deforestation o satellites allow to measure the forest cover and identify possible disturbances o radar imagery could be used to estimate forest biomass carbon density over large areas and assess levels of forest degradation o at present, avoided deforestation and degradation can only be calculated using the rate of change in forest cover and the amount of carbon stored in the forest, plus the delayed emissions from soils Current Deforestation and forest Degradation 2.1 Trends in Forest Area  Red Baseline scenarios depend on historical deforestation  it was suggested that the best available data archive of historical deforestation area for REDD could be global Landsat imagery complemented by coarser resolution high frequency or radar data  The FAO (Food and agricultural organization of the United Nations) provides periodic reports of forest cover area based upon field data from national statistics o not very accurate  forest loss is dominated by deforestation occurring in Latin America o mainly localized in Brazil  REDD programs will require only gross deforestation data  remote sensing are valuable because of the consistent application of forest definition and methodology, but lack background necessary to inform about the carbon cycle o background could be supplied by FAO statistics  the forest area changes inferred from statistic and remote sensed products are not directly comparable because they rely on different spatial areas and forest definitions o information that might help to the direct comparison of the two sources often are not supplied by countries national statistics 2.2 Biomass Carbon Densities  CO2 emissions from land use change in the tropics are particularly high  the majority of carbon in tropical forests is found in above ground live tissues o remote sensing could thus be used to maybe infer forest structures an above ground biomass  the mapping of tropical forest carbon stocks is very difficult o high accuracy is required across large areas and high biomass densities saturate radar signals  average and spatial distribution of biomass are practically unknown in the tropics  the carbon density in the forest biomass can be calculated only using ground based forest carbon measurements 
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