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Educ 323 Ch 8.docx

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EDUC 323
Alex Abdel- Malek

Educ 323 Ch 8 (Behaviorism) B.F. Skinner • Background: o Behavior therapy (BT) cluser of models and techniques involving several dif perspectives on human learning  Share commitment to scientific approach that’s concerned w/the application of principles broadly derived from psychological research (across experiemtnal, social, cognitive and developmental)  Characterized by concern w/current causes of behaviour (not indiv history)  Developed in rxn to psychoanalytic model, emphasized observable behaviours not internal events/client history  Modern approaches allow for cognitive/emotional factor influence  Ivan Pavlov and classical conditioning w/dogs  Wolpe and classical conditioning for approach to understanding and tx of anxiety (reciprocal inhibition) o Little Albert: Watson and little child touching white rat paired w/loud distressing noise (classical conditioning) o Mary Cover Jones: A pioneer in eliminating fear in children  Children in institutions as last resort day care and looked at fears they had  Used conditioning to decrease fears, extinction of fear behaviour o Second model of learning: Operant model from Thorndike w/cats (box) o Third model: Bandura and Observational learning (role of social evetns)  Finding that participants could learn from observation and then perform, or refuse to perform it led to assumption taht learning store cognitively in some way  Social cognitive theory o Eysenck initially for BT o Acceptance and Commitment therapy- look at sitautiosn in which thoughts ocur and effects of thoughts interms of behaiovr and beyond for life satisfaction o Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)- LInehand to deal w/clients w/fairly severe dysfunction  Combined BT, CT techniques and some Zen techniques is an intensive approach w/weekly indiv sessions, group skills training and frequent phone consultation  Warm accepting rlnshp where client can vent about and tolerate their negative feelings which the therapist validates  Goal to approach life w/more balanced, dialectical approach  Use of mindfulness and emotional regulation, Contingency management, and reciprocal communication (therapist self disclosure) and irreverent communication (reframing something patient says in unorthodox way or adopting opposite level of intensity of patient) o Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT)- based on notion that avoiding unwanted thoughts, feelings and physiological experiences can create worse problems ACT is a behaviourally oriented approach that simply encourages client to accept and observe  Once stop trying to get rid of experiences can focus on overt behaviours directed at desired outcomes  Accept, Choose and Take Action  Overall goal to increase psychological flexibility, draws from ancient spiritual traditions in emphasis on acceptance and mindfulness (monitor selves and be ok w/who you are/accept) o Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP)- focus on therapeutic rlnshp, assume that “all ppl act b/c of contingencies of reinforcement they’ve experienced in past rlnshps)  3 types of clinically relevant behaviour- Problem behaviour, behavioural improvements and client interpretations of behaviour • Therapist watch for these and reinforcement when last 2 occur and punish the first • Basic Philosophy: o More a general orientation than specific theoretical approach o 8 principles: Behavior (public or private) strengthened or weakened by its consequences  Behaviors that are rewarded are increased, punished decrease  Approach functional, not structural  Neutral stimuli paired w/positive or negative environemtnal stimuli can take on properties of the environment they’re presented w/and can be conditioned  Antimentalist  BT is data driven and empirically based  Changes clients make in therapy must generalize to every day life  Insigh alone not beneficial o Neutral on human nature, recognize genetic influences but ultimately see behaviour as b/c of environment o Psychological/learning model approach of dysfunctional behaviour, symptom focus of attn (not underlying causal factors)  Behaviour pathological when deviates from social norms • Human motivation: o Ppl motivated to adapt to environment (adaptation means survival) • Central constructs: o Classical Conditioning: involuntary, reflexive process, rlnshp b/w stimulus and response wired in and can become associated w/new stimulus  Wolpe and Reciprocal inhibition • Anxiety gets conditioned to some stimulus that’s not normally anxiety provoking • At other times anxiety natural and adaptive • Extinction- present CS w/o UCS and weakend conditioned response o Operant conditioning : states w/idea that behaviour maintained by consequences  Behaviour contingenet upon conseuqnces, reinforcement (consequences that maintain behaviour) • Reinforcers increase probability a behaivior will occur • Whether event is reinforcing is product of indiv’s biology, learning history and current situation • Positive reinforcers increase likelihood of beahvior b/c something good presented, Negative reinforcers increase probability of behaviour b/c remove aversive stimuli • Most basic reinforces= food and sex b/c relate to evolutionary goals of survival and reproduction (primary reinforcers) • Satiation= too much of a good thing, power of reinforce decreased • Establishing operations= environmental events/operations/stimulus conditions that affect organisms behaviour by altering the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of other environmental cues and the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism’s repertoire • Some stimuli generalized (ie money)- stimuli occurring in presence of many kinds of reinforcers (paper itself not reinforcing but is associated w/getting reinforcing things) o Attn from others also conditioned reinforcement (ie baby and attn for survival) o Discriminative stimulus- stimulus in environemtn signals that given contingency is operative o When behaviour becomes controlled by discriminative stimuli is said to be under stimulus ctrl  Discriminative stimuli can become coniditioned reinforcers  Once discriminative stimulus established generalization can occur • Extinction: occurs when reinforcement maintaining behaviour is removed and response becomes less frequent and finally disappears (contingencies supporting it no longer in effect)  Continuous reinforcement- given after every response • Intermittent reinforcement- after some responses and not others • Dif schedules of reinforcement too o If intermittent reinformcent more resistant to extinction (vs continuous schedules w/less resistance)  Punishment- reduces behaviour probability o Observational learning:  Bandura, idea that ppl can learn by viewing the behaviour of others (social learning theory) • Incorporates cognitive aspect b/c what’s learned must be remembered somehow  Vicarious conditioning- watching someone else experience something and you acquire similar response patterns • Theory of the person and deve of the indiv: o No interest in personality theory or developmental stages o Pay attn to past using construct of Learning history  Understanding reinforcement contingencies operative in indiv’s past makes if poss to implement dif contingencies in the present and thus to change behaviour • Health and dysfunction: o Psychological health= adaptive behaviour (promotes survival, all behaviour is learned) o Psychological dysfunction is maladaptive beahvior- arises from same processes as adaptive (learned) o Classical conditioning persp says psychological dysfunction b/c of faulty anxiety conditioning  Fear unconditioned response that gets associated w/previously neutral stimulus  Focuses heavily on anxiety and maladaptive behaviour, WOlpe maintains that many forms of depression are anxiety too o Operant perspective- dysfunctional behaviour maintained by contingencies of reinforcement
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