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GEOG 162 (2)
Chapter 2

Geog162 Chapter 2 Physical Geography of Canada.docx

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Simon Fraser University
GEOG 162
Michele Wiens

Chapter 2 Physical Geography of Canada The Physical Base of Canada Includes Landforms Geology SoilsVegetation Climate GlaciationsLandform Regions The Mountain Rim Cordilleraruns through BC and forms the western flank Appalachiaruns through New Brunswick and forms the eastern flank Innuitian Mountainsruns eastwest along the edge of the Arctic The Shield continental coremakes up most of Canada The LowlandsHudson Bay Great LakesSt Lawrence The Interior Plainsthe broad region with rolling hills in Central Canada underlain by sedimentary rockFormation of the Mountain Rim formed largely through plate tectonic activity Plate tectonics is the process by which lithosphere plates containing crustal material move across the Earth If plates collide or move beneath one another subduction mountains form eg Rockies Appalachian This leads to variety of landforms rocks of various composition variety of mineralization etc metallic nonmetallic minerals fuels etcFormation of the Shield very old igneous rockcore formed as molten magma rose from within the Earth the cooled and hardened 3 billion years ago through erosion the shield became exposed metamorphism changes due to heat and pressure applied to rock produced metallic minerals iron copper lead zinc nickel gold silver etcFormation of the Interior Plains vast sedimentary plain surrounding the core nearly 20 of Canada millions of years ago a huge inland sea occupied the Interior Plains Over time sediments scarped from the shield were deposited into this sea eventually the weight of these deposits transformed these sediments into rocks tectonic forces had little effect on this region and are so described a stable platform oil and gas are found in sedimentary basins here
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