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Chapter 20

HIST 130 Chapter Notes - Chapter 20: South Arabia, New World Crops

Course Code
HIST 130
Niall Mac Kenzie

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Week 7
Monday, October 17, 2016
The World, A History: Ch. 20 —
20.1 China, Persia and the Ottomans in Arrest or Decline — Why did
the major Asian empires lose impetus in the 18th century?
-empires grew not only by conquest, but by colonization
-colonists began to expand the limits the of the inhabited world
20.1.1. China
-China continued to colonize recently absorbed lands in Manchuria and Taiwan
-it engulfed Tibet in 1720
-merchants had reimbursed travel costs, land grants, tax breaks, and loans for seeds,
livestock and housing
-Chinese had fought the local inhabitants to extinction
-Chinese traders benefited increasingly as trade slipped into the control of
-China hd little will to make new conquests, adopt new technologies or undertake new
20.1.2. The Asian Contact
-Burma first shrank, then split and finally collapsed in 1752
-The Thai empire shattered
20.1.3. Persia and the Ottoman Empire
-the efficiency of the state declined
-Sultans had to rely increasingly on the Muslim clergy to keep the administration going
-trade revenues fell
-the end of the coffee monopoly in Southern Arabia
-Russia had sovereignty over a Muslim population, despite being a Christian power

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Week 7
Monday, October 17, 2016
-the empire conceded autonomy to local inhabitants
-Ottomans lost prestige
20.2 Reversal in India: Mughal Eclipse, British Ascent
-widened borders enclosed ever more diverse cultures, religions, political systems,
and ethnic identities
-Sikhs and Hindus were hard to accommodate in the fiercely Muslim ideology
-tradition still counted
-potential imperialists were unlikely to come from within Asia
-the British saw themselves as the “agents of merchants” than imperial colonists
-the speed of triumph gave the illusion of inevitability
-security always demanded control of the next frontier
-Britain put together a coalition of Indian clients and mercenaries to defeat the regional
-Indians could no longer deal with the British in the traditional frameworks of
commerce and politics
-the intruders had to be expelled or obeyed
-Britain’s India was the first big European empire on the mainland of Asia
-They could smother the potential competition of Indian industries
-they had help from natives
-standard British artillery was superior to every Bengali products
20.3 The Dutch Empire in Asia — What problems did the Dutch face as
-the Spanish built up their empire in the Philippines
-the Portuguese expanded their frontiers around Goa into the New Conquests
-the Dutch built up a land empire on Java
-their strength was in shipping
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