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HIST 255 Chapter Notes - Chapter all: Hundred Flowers Campaign, Maoism, Nanjing Decade


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 255
Professor
Jeremy Brown
Chapter
all

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HIST 255: FINAL PREP
April 13, 2017 7:32 PM
Fighting for Survival (1937-45)
NEW START DATE OF WWII: "Manchurian Incident: - young officers in Japan's Kwantung Army set of explosion
alone railway to force govt into action => "Manchukuo"
OLD START DATE OF WWII: "Marco Polo Incident" - Japanese troops on patrol near Marco Polo bridge exchanged
shots with Chinese they believed to have taken missing soldier, soldier showed up later
War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45)
First stage:
To force Jap to fight in Shanghai area, where Chiang outnumbered Japs by ten to one,
Rape of Nanjing
Wang Jingwei: chose to go to Japs
"Second United Front"
Second Stage:
Increase in foreign involvement @Pearl Harbour
Nanjing Decade art = high-point for mass-produced political art and literature; romantic idealization of
countryside
Party Rectification Movement, 1942: party leaders mobilized parts of the bureaucracy, party, and/or people
to pursue a defined goal
Self-criticisms; Mao ZeDong Thought
END: American airplanes firebombed Tokyo and dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Explaining Nanjing: Japanese culture, Military strategy, Denials that it happened
Collaboration
Unconditional collaboration
Neutral collaboration: willing to conform to survive; doesn't really support
Condition collaboration: go along as long as there's autonomy, not fight, but lives under control
Tactical collaboration: performing public service for foreign powers, cleaning up bodies after Nanjing
massacre
Flag of Manchukuo: hierarchy - Manchu > Japan > Han > Mongolia > Ethnic Koreans
Dilemmas of Victory (1949-1953)
Collapse of Japan; Cold War between USA and Soviets
CCP: focus on North
GMD: Maneuver between Soviet Union and USA to benefit from both
"Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" - Soviet turn over Manchuria
Using American troops into Manchuria - Cold War = complete reliance on USA
GMD gov't = weak; corruption, inflation, poorly-trained, under-strength
General George Marshall appointed by President Harry Truman to negotiate cease-fire and coalition gov't between
GMD and CCP
Neither side settled = war
Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China
Communist Party:
Mass movements or "campaigns" to transform education, society, family life, and gov't and party itself
Korean War: "Resist American, Aid Korea" - Mao gains credibility as a leader = victory for China
USA determined to defend GMD; GMD pursue own economic development in Taiwan
"Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries" - targeted people still resisting or planning t resist the
Communist Party - overlapped with Land Reform Campaign
Landlord, rich peasant, middle peasant, "bad element" (local toughs, rent collectors, and criminals)
Public humiliation, beatings, executed after quick informal trials
Three-Antis Campaign: attack party cadres guilty of corruption, waste and bureaucracy
Five-Antis Campaign: attacked businessmen accused of bribery, theft of state property, tax evasion,
cheating on government contracts and theft of state economic information
First Five-Year Plan:
Economic plan: prioritized heavy industry; crops from rural traded to Soviet for machinery, each
factory given a quota = China moved from market economy to socialism
Doubling of industrial production and eliminate private market economy
China Flag:
Smalls stars represent social class: peasantry, working class, urban petty bourgeoise, national
bourgeoise
Big star = Communist Party of China
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