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HSCI 100 (38)

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Health Sciences
HSCI 100
Nienkevan Houten

Chapter 13IMMUNITYIs the ability to combat infectious diseases and cancerThe individuals body makes antibodies against a particular antigenPrimary exposure is shorter lived and slower to respond while a secondary exposure is a rapid strong responseThis type of immunity is usually long lastingIt depends on clonal selection and production of memory B and t cellsCan be brought about naturally through an infection artificially through medical intervention such as a vaccination LYMPHATICANDIMMUNESYSTEMTOTHERESCUEClassifyinglymphaticorgansPrimaryRed bone marrowThymus glandSecondary Lymph nodes spleen and appendix BranchesoftheimmuneresponseInnate immunityAlways present broad spectrum responsesPhysical barriersPhagocytic blood cellsComplementsAdaptive immunityPathogens specific and forms memory takes time to developHumoral response antibodyCytotoxic responses3LINESOFDEFENSEHas 3 strategies for defending against foreign organisms and molecules1Keep the foreign organism or molecule out of the body in the first placestAccomplished by the 1 line of defensechemical and physical surface barrier 2Attack any foreign organism ormolecule or cancer cell inside the bodyConsists of internal cellular and chemical defense that become activated if the surface barrier is broken 3Destroy a specific type of foreign organism or molecule inside the body Immune response which destroys specific targets FirstlineofdefensePhysical barriersSkinTears saliva and urine physically flushes our microbesMucous membranes line the respiratory digestive reproductive and urinary tracts and trap microbesResident bacteria normal flora that inhabit the body use available nutrients and space thus preventing pathogens from taking up residenceChemical barriersSecretion of the oil glandsLysozyme a digestive enzyme found in saliva tear and sweatAcidic pH of the stomach and vagina SecondlineofdefenseDEFENSE CELL Specialized cells called phagocytes engulf the pathogen damaged cells or dead cells by a process called phagocytosisAlso clean up debrisWhen phagocyte meet a foreign molecule cytoplasmic extension flow from phagocyte and bind to the particle and pull it inside the cell Once insideit is destroyed by digestive enzymesNeutrophil a type of phagocyte arrives at the site of attack before any other WBC and immediately begins to consume the pathogenOther WBC monocyte develops into macrophages that attacks and consumes virtually anything that is not recognized as part of the body
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