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HSCI180 CH8-9 Alcohol & Psychotherapeutic Drugs.docx

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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSCI 180
Professor
Julian Somers

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CHAPTER 9Alcohol ProductionTypes FermentationFermentationthe production of alcohol from sugars through the action of yeasts o Forms the basis of all alcoholic beverages Fruitsyeastwater fermentation will beginCereal grains contain starch which must be converted to sugar by malt before fermentation can beginYeast has a limited tolerance for alcohol when the concentration reaches a certain percentage 15 is possible but standard for wine is about 12 the yeast dies and fermentation ceasesDistillationDistillationevaporation barley malt and condensing of alcohol vapors to produce beverages with alcohol content higher than 15 percent o Perhaps first used in Arabia around AD 800Proofalcohol content of a distilled beverage twice the percentage of alcohol per volume o 90proof whiskey is 45 percent alcohol o In olden days to test alcohol content it was poured over gunpowder and ignited if high hough alcohol would burn and ignite proof it was acceptable BeerMade by adding to other cereal grains eg corn or riceHops are added with yeast to give beer its distinctive flavoro Lageruses a type of yeast that settles to the bottom of the mash to ferment most common in US o Aleuses a topfermentation yeast warmer fermentation temperature more malt and hops o Light beerfermented longer at a cooler temperature so more sugar is converted to alcohol then water addedso similar alcohol content but less sugar and fewer calories than regular beerManufacturers o The domestic beer market in Canada is dominated by Labatt Molson and Sleeman foreign owned o Moosehead breweries largest Canadianowned controls about 55 of the Cndn market o Domestically produced beer accounts for 88 of Canadian beer salesWineMade from fermented grapesMost wines contain about 12 alcohol o Factors in quality include selection and cultivation of grapevines good weather timing of harvest and careful monitoring of fermentation and agingGenericsblended all grapes together eg Burgandy RhineVarietalsafter one variety of grape 51 eg Chardonnay merlot zinfandelRed leaving skin while ferment vs white white grapes or remove skinSweet heavier taste vs drySparkling wines carboninated eg champagnes naturally ferment when adding sugar and bottle itFortified wines alcohol content near 20Distilled SpiritsBrandyDistilled from wineGrain neutral spiritsrelatively pure alcohol due to improved distillation techniques o Today most are 95 190 proofclear tastelessGin distillate filtered through juniper berries and then diluted with water Vodka mixture of GNS and watero Contains relatively few congeners other alcoholoils in alcoholic beverages may be toxicWhiskeydistillate of fermented malted barley o Early US distiller from Bourbon County Kentucky gave beverage its name o Distilled at a lower proof 160 and so contains more congeners and some flavor from the grain used o Rye whiskey corn whiskey bourbon blended whiskey o Usually aged for at least two yearsLiqueurs or cordialso Alcohol content 20 to 25o Originally made from brandy mixed with flavorings from herbs berries or nuts o Now typically made from flavored diluted grain neutral spirits
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