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HSCI180 CH 14 - Hallucinogens.docx

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
HSCI 180
Professor
Julian Somers
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter14 Hallucinogens  Animism: The belief that animals/plants derive their special characteristics from spirits o If a plant contains a spirit, then eating the plant transfers this spirit to the person who consumes it, possibly giving that person special powers or insights, plant speak to consumer, make the person feel the plant‘s joy  Psychoactive plants – used for medicines, spiritual, recreational purposes – to promote state of detachment from reality and precipitate mystical insight Name for the Family of Drugs  Naming the family of drugs is a complex issue  Phantastica: Drugs that create a world of fantasy in our minds (peyote, LSD, psilocybin)  Psychedelic: ―Mind-viewing,‖ allow them to see into their own minds (Implies beneficial effect – controversial)  Psychotomimetic: ―Mimicking psychosis‖—by producing hallucinations and some altered sense of reality, produce a psychotic state (implies dangerous/mental disorder- also controversial)  Entheogens: Substances that create spiritual or religious experiences (eg mushrooms)  Entactogens: Substances that enhance feelings of empathy (eg MDMA)  Hallucinogens: A more descriptive and less prejudiced term o ―A drug that produces profound alterations in perception, including unusual visual sensations and often changes in the perception of one‘s own body‖ Classification  Hallucinogens can be classified by o Chemical structure o Known pharmacological properties o How much loss of awareness they cause o How dangerous they are  Two major groups: Classical phantastica + Deliriants Classical Phantastica Alter perceptions while allowing the user to remain in communication with the present world – person is aware of fantasy/real world, talk about it, remember it all, little physiological toxicity  Two majors class: 1. Indole hallucinogens = drugs that have the indole structure (of serotonin)  eg: LSD, psilocybin 2. Catechol hallucinogens = drugs that have the catechol nucleus (of Norp and DA)  Mescaline, MDMA A) Indole Hallucinogens d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Discovery  Synthetic (none in nature) – from alkaloids extracted from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea o Eating grain infected with this mold causes illness ergotism  If famine, grain infected might be consumed instead of destroyed, leading to outbreaks of ergotism  1938: Synthesized by Dr. Albert Hofmann 1943 took large dose, described its effects (potency attracted attention, only small dose needed)  Early Research o 1950s - 1970s, tremendous amount of research w/ LSD  contribute little o Psychotherapy, help patients bring up repressed memories in unconscious minds o Now most conducted on animals - to understand the drug‘s action at the neural level o Canadian Pioneers in the Use of LSD  Use LSD to treat mental illness and alcoholism, pioneered in Saskatchewan (1st province in Canada to elect a socialist government in 1944, & health care & significant support for research)  Humphry Osmond, Abram Hoffer, Duncan Blewett –worked on LSD and mescaline and proposed that mental illness, such as schizophrenia, was due to a biochemical imbalance.  Treated alcoholic patient, emphasized significance of spiritual growth  Secret Army/CIA Research o 1950-60s, experimented w/ soldiers/civilians, unwittingly given drug  Some believed they were losing their minds, some suffered psychiatric disorders and others had difficulties adjusting to their usual lives.  Research was poorly done, violated many ethical codes, when public had to pay $$ o Canadian government (w/CIA) also funded research in mind control and behaviour modification. o Project MK-ULTRA – investigate effects of LSD on US prisoners + Cnd/USA patients – w/o consent. o 1950-64, at Allen Memorial Institutes - LSD and electroshock therapy without patient‘s consent o Critics argue they were not project for mind control, but a system for extracting information from resistant sources (torture) Recreational Use  Experiments by Timothy Leary & Harvard students  Ethically questionable methods, used drugs with subjects, unsupervised administration, at his house, etc  Prohibited in 1962, schedule 3 in CDSA  1966: Leary started a religion ―League of Spiritual Discovery‖, with LSD as the sacrament  1967-8: peak use; then fell due to reports of problems associated with its use including ―bad trips,‖ prolonged psychotic reactions, worries about possible chromosome damage, self-injurious behavior and ―flashbacks‖  1999-2009, use has decline, also increase in perception of social disapproval/risk  Creativity – no good evidence that it increases it  Therapeutic usefulness? Good for early treatment with alcohol not later; some success with pain and depression of cancer patient; - NIMH said not useful in general LSD Pharmacology  Odorless, colorless, tasteless  Sympathomimetic agent, Autonomic signs appear quickly (Dilated pupils, elevated temperature and blood pressure, increased salivation)  Indole structure of LSD resembles serotonin –LSD acts by stimulating the serotonin-2A subtype of receptor  Effective at ~0.05mg // (Lethal)LD 50at 16mg – 400x of behaviorally effective dose o Most potent of hallucinogens – 4000x more potent than mescaline o But limited in effects  No known human overdose deaths  Usually taken Orally, Absorbed rapidly o Half-life: 3 hours, Metabolized by the liver o Excreted as the inactive chemical 2-oxy-lysergic acid diethylamide  Rapid Tolerance develops, Rapid recovery from tolerance too  Cross tolerance occurs among LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin  No Physical dependence shown The LSD Experience  Modification of perceptions: visual images, see shapes and patterns, intense colors and brightness o An altered sense of time, changes in the perception of their own bodies, and alterations of auditory input  Synesthesia (―mixing of senses‖) = sounds appear images or pictures might alter in rhythm with music  Enhanced emotionality: Images are beautiful/awe-inspiring or as intensely/sad/ frightening  Effective dose (30-100micogram) – can last 6-9 hours o 20min - Initial effect - Autonomic responses o 30-40min - Alterations in mood, perception, and sensation o 1hour - full intoxication o 2hour – change in self perception, depersonalization (May Lose self-awareness / control of behavior)  Expansive — feels excited, grandiose, uncover secrets of the universe, creativity  Constricted —experiences paranoia and feelings of persecution LSD: Adverse Reactions  Impossible to determine true incidence  Bad reactions may be due to impurities in street LSD and/or preexisting psychological conditions in the user  Panic reactions  Flashbacks - Recurrence of symptoms weeks or months after taken LSD (rare, variable, unpredictable) o DSM-IV-TR classifies Flashbacks as as Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder Psilocybin “Magic Mushrooms”  Long history of use w/ Mexican for religious and ceremonial use  Psilocybe mexicana = most well-known psychoactive mushroom  Psilocybe semilanceata, most common and most potent - found in Atlantic provinces and BC.  Active ingredient = psilocybin (an indole also discovered by Hofmann) o Dried mushrooms are 0.2 - 0.5 % psilocybin o Only affect CNS after change to psilocin o Hallucinogenic effects: similar to LSD and mescaline (cross-tolerance)  ~ 4 mg causes relaxation and some body sensations  Higher doses cause perceptual and body-image changes, hallucinations in some o Sympathetic arousal symptoms  ―Good Friday study‖ (1962)  Students were given psilocybin/placebo before attending church o Psilocybin increase mystical experiences o Later research found effects last at least 2 months Production  Most current production is from local, amateur growers (few major producers)  ―Shrooms‖ might be consumed at a party in combination with alcohol  Spores Psilocybe cubensis can be readily purchased from suppliers through the internet  Mushroom spore kits = legal, sold openly; but possession of spores are illegal.  Psilocybin and psilocin = illegal to possess / sell – schedule 3 CDSA Morning Glories  Ololiuqui, seeds of the morning glory plant Rivea corymbosa (mexico religious significance) o Seeds contain several active alkaloids and d-lysergic acid amide (1/10 as active as LSD) Hawaiian Baby Woodrose  Seeds from the Argyreia nervosa/”Hawaiian baby woodrose‖ - used recreationally o Higher level of d-lysergic acid amide o Outer coating of seeds contain toxic cyanogenic glycosides, can make a user sick Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)  An important naturally occurring hallucinogen found in many plants and humans (derived from EAA tryptophan)  Active agent in Cohoba snuff, used in South American and Caribbean Indian hunting rituals  Usually snuffed, smoked, or taken by injection  No effective if taken orally (broken down by MAO) o Very Brief Effects (2min after, last <30min) - but tolerance does not develop to its psychological effects  1931, Synthesized by Richard Manske  DMT is illegal to possess and sell. – schedule 3 Ayahuasca (vine of the soul)  Ayahuasca, from the Quechuan language of the Amazon region. o Also for the ―Vine Banisteriopsis caapi “ & the Brew made from the vine  Brew commonly combines Banisteriopsis (contains harmaline) + leaves of psycho
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