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Chapter 17

chapter 17 hsci 100 notes

6 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSCI 100
Professor
Nienkevan Houten

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Chapter 17
GONADS
Germs cells in gonads develop into gametes in specialized compartments with support cells
>Ovaries produce eggs. Estrogen and progesterone
>Testes produce sperm and testosterone
Spermatogenesis: process of making sperm cells
Oogenesis: process of making eggs in females
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Scrotum
Sac that holds the testes
Help regulate temperature of the testes: 37 degrees is too warm and can kill the
sperm
Testes
Paired organ that produce sperm and male sex hormones
Composed of seminiferous tubules where sperm are produced
Sertoli cells
>Nourish sperm and regulate process of sperm production (spermatogenesis, 74 days)
Leydig cells (interstitial cells )
>Between seminiferous tubules and produce the male hormone, androgens.
>Most important hormone is testosterone
Duct system
Epididymis: where sperm mature and are stored
From there, the sperm go through the vas deferens to the urethra, where the semen and urine as
left the body
Accessory glands
PROSTATE GLAND
Produce an alkaline fluid to help buffer the acidic pH in the vagina
SEMINAL VESICLES
Produce a sugary fluid (fructose) that provide energy for the sperm and prostaglandins that
stimulate uterine contractions
Also help thicken the semen so that it can be protected against contacting the acidic environment
of the vagina
BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
Produces mucus that acts as a lubricant in the urethra
Clear slippery fluid that rinses out the slightly acidic urine before the sperm comes
Penis
Erection takes place when smooth muscles of the arteries relax thanks to the
action of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in cells
The erectile tissue fills with blood and veins get compressed and blood returns
slowly, becomes engorged and erect
Stimulation triggers cGMP, which relaxes and cause blood to flow into erectile
tissue.
-Blood flows quicker than it can leave and eventually cGMP get broken
down by phophodiesterase
-Viagra blocks phophodiesterase, that breaks down cGMO, and thus prolongs erections
Hormones
GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE
GnRH
Secreted by the hypothalamus to control release of other hormones
Stimulates luteinizing hormone
FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE
FSH
Promotes the production of sperm, released by the anterior pituitary gland
Stimulate sperm production by making the cells that will become sperm more sensitive to
testosterone
LUTEINIZING HORMONE
LH
Controls the production of testosterone, released by anterior pituitary gland
TESTOSTERONE
Produced by interstitial cells of the gonad
Important for normal development and functioning of male reproductive organs

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Description
Chapter 17GONADSGerms cells in gonads develop into gametes in specialized compartments with support cellsOvaries produce eggs Estrogen and progesterone Testes produce sperm and testosterone Spermatogenesis process of making sperm cellsOogenesis process of making eggs in females MALEREPRODUCTIVESYSTEMScrotumSac that holds the testesHelp regulate temperature of the testes 37 degrees is too warm and can kill the sperm TestesPaired organ that produce sperm and male sex hormones Composed of seminiferous tubules where sperm are producedSertoli cellsNourish sperm and regulate process of sperm production spermatogenesis 74 daysLeydig cells interstitial cells Between seminiferous tubules and produce the male hormone androgensMost important hormone is testosteroneDuctsystemEpididymis where sperm mature and are stored From there the sperm go through the vas deferens to the urethra where the semen and urine as left the bodyAccessoryglandsPROSTATE GLANDProduce an alkaline fluid to help buffer the acidic pH in the vaginaSEMINAL VESICLESProduce a sugary fluid fructose that provide energy for the sperm and prostaglandins that stimulate uterine contractions
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