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Chapter Theory of Mind & The Psychology of Groups

IAT 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter Theory of Mind & The Psychology of Groups : Ostracism, Groupthink, Intentionality


Department
Interactive Arts & Tech
Course Code
IAT 201
Professor
Brian Fisher
Chapter
Theory of Mind & The Psychology of Groups

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Week11:TheoryofMind&ThePsychologyofGroups
November20,2017 2:22AM
TheoryofMind
• Acapacitythatsomescholarsprefertolabel'mentalizing'or
'mindreading'
TheRoleofTheoryofMindinSocialLife
• Theoryofmindhelpspredictsomeone'sresponse
• People'stheoryofmindframesandinterpretsperceptionsofhuman
behaviorinaparticularway
• Humansneedtounderstandmindsinordertoengageinthekindsof
complexinteractionsthatsocialcommunitiesrequire
○ Ie.Ourunderstandingofcashiers,creditcards,payment
AutismandTheoryofMind
• Autisticindividualshaveahardertimeusingthetheoryofmindbecauseit
requiresprocessingfacialexpressionsandinferringpeople'sintentions
TheMentalProcessesUnderlyingTheoryofMind
• Ourcapacitytorecognizeandunderstandmentalstatesinvolvesahostof
components
Agents,Goals,andIntentionality
• Agent

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○ Allowshumanstoidentifythosemovingobjectsintheworldthat
canactontheirown
○ Agentsarecharacteristicallydirectedtowardgoalobjects–they
seekout,track,andphysicallycontactsaidobjects
• Intentionality
○ Humanperceiversrecognizethesomebehaviorscanbe
unintentionaleveniftheyweregoaldirected
○ Youneedagoalandtherightkindsofbeliefsabouthowtoachieve
thegoal
○ Requiresthatanagenthavetheskilltoperformtheintentional
actioninquestion
Imitation,Synchrony,andEmpathy
• Imitationandempathyaretwobasiccapacitiesthataidtheunderstanding
ofmindfromchildhoodon
Imitation:thehumantendencytocarefullyobserveothers'behaviorsand
doastheydo
Mimicryisasubtleautomaticformofimitation
• Whenpeoplemutuallymimiconeanothertheycanreachastateof
synchrony
• Peoplewhoenjoyaninteractionsynchronizetheirbehaviorsmore
• Synchronizingismadepossiblebybrainmechanismsthattightlylink
perceptualinfowithmotorinfo
Mirrorneuronsfirebothperceptualinfoandmotorinfoatthesametime
Automaticempathybuildsonimitationandsynchronyinacleverway
JointAttention,VisualPerspectiveTaking
Jointattention‑activelyengagingwithotherpeople'smentalstates
• Ex:twodifferentpeoplecanbothbeawareoftheotherpersonstaringat
thesameobjecttheyare
• Youmayperiodicallylookattheotherpersontomakesureyouarejointly
engagingwiththeobject
Visualperspectivetaking:whenweovercomeouregocentricperspective
thisway,weimaginativelyadopttheotherperson'sspatialviewpointand
determinehowtheworldlooksfromtheirperspective
Projection,Stimulation(andtheSpecterofEgocentrism)
• Weunderstandsomeoneelse'sthoughtsorfeelingsthroughsimulation‑
usingone'sownmentalstatesasamodelforothers'mentalstates
• Theassumptionthattheotherthinks,feels,wantswhatwedocalledthe
'like‑me'assumptionortheinclinationtowardsocialprojection
• Thisisanabsenceofperspectivetaking,becauseweassumethatthe
other'sperspectiveequalsourown
ExplicitMentalStateInference
• Theabilitytotakeanotherperson'sperspectiverequiresthatweseparate
whatwewant,feel,andknowfromwhattheotherpersonislikelyto
want,feel,know
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