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Chapter 2

LING 222 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Inalienable Possession, Nominative Case, Verb

Course Code
LING 222
John Lyon

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Chapter 2
Some words fit in more than one category.
Language Universals: A properties found in all languages (all languages have syntactic
Open Class: Words can be added to lexical categories (to google)
Lexical Categories
- Predicate (Expresses an event, action, process, or state.)
- Kim wanted to _______.
- Transitive verbs are verbs that need a direct object (He read that book)
- Intransitive Verbs: No object is needed. Only have one participant (or argument)
o Lee sneezed
- Ditransitive Verbs: X verb Y to/for Z
o Bob handed the letter to his mother
o Bob gave the children some flowers
- Ambitransitive Verbs: Verbs that can be transitive or intransitive
o Cook, read, sing etc.
- Tense: grammatically expression of location in time.
- Aspect: whether an action is ongoing or completed (progressive and perfect)
- Mood: marks possibility, probability and certainty
o Modal auxiliaries often express mood hence the term (modal)
o Indicitive
o Subjunctive:
- Valency- changing processes: Alter the arguet struture of the er hagig its
basic syntactic requirements. The argument structure is the relationship between
subject, object and verb as seen in passive sentences.
- Agreement: Verb agree with other arguments in the sentence
o Subject Verb agreement
o Pronominal affixes: Morphological markers that can replace independent
pronouns. (Nous parlons)
- Describing word that modifies a noun.
- Kim seems _____.
- Sometimes a closed class (in some languages)
- Attributive: Directly modify a noun and normally have a fixed position. (The red car)
- Predicative: Similar to predicate NPs. Gives more information about the subject usually
liked y the opula er to e. He felt ___. He is ____
- Comparative: suffix er or the ord ore (louder, more fun)
- Superlative: suffix –est or the ord ost loudest, ost fu
- Agreement: adjectives are often marked to agree with the nouns they modify (la porte
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