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Chapter

Philosopher's beliefs


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 100W
Professor
Peter Horban

Page:
of 2
Moreland IV 30
Argues against:
Physicalism
oIf theism is true, then physicalism is false.
oNumbers exist but they aren’t physical entities
oProperties (goodness, value) are not physical, but they exist.
oContent of a sentence exists, but isn’t physical (it’s not just ink on a page)
oLeaves out the character of subjective awareness (from 1st person view)
oPhysicalists say that we are really ancestral chains of successive “selves”
which are connected w/ one another in some way.
Property dualism/epiphenomenalism/Emergent Property View:
oMind is a property of the body
oIf body ceases to exist, so does mind (disbelief in immortality)
oThis is refuted b/c there is no enduring “I” to be present through the
process of thought
Argues For:
Substance Dualism:
oAccording to Aristotle, the mind is potential in matter (there is potentiality
in a green leaf to turn red)
Thomas Nagel IV 32
Argues against:
Objectivity
Reductive materialism (identity theory)
Argues for:
Subjectivity (we cannot know how it’s like to be a bat)
oAn alien may have the same emotions, feelings etc. as us but may have
different physiological characteristics that cause these feelings (there is no
one to one function as the reductivist suggests)
Socrates I.1
Charges:
oA curious person who searches for things under earth and in heaven
oCorrupting the youth
oAtheism
Chaerephon asks oracle of Delphi if there’s anyone wiser than Socrates. Answer:
no
oSocrates says he has no wisdom, so he thinks this is a riddle. How can he
be wisest when he has no wisdom great or small?
oSocrates would rather be himself than the politicians who are imposters
b/c they don’t understand their own writings
oSo ppl think he’s a busybody so they are already prejudice against him
1st move: accuses meletus of not caring what he claims to care about (the
improvement of the young)
Gets Meletus to contradict himself by saying Socrates believes in demi gods,
spirits, but he’s an atheist
Side Notes:
Theism:
othe belief in one or more gods
epistemology:
ois the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations,
and validity of knowledge and belief.
Eliminative materialism:
oThe folk psychology is so confusing that it would be better to abandon it
so we should concentrate on the physical. (Mental doesn’t exist)
Identity theorists (reductivists) are accused of property dualism
Metaphysics:
oWhat exists