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Chapter 1

PHIL 105 Chapter 1: PHIL105chapter1

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PHIL 105
Dai Heide

Sentences, propositions, and beliefs Sentences ● Interrogative sentence ○ A sentence that asks a question ● Imperative sentence ○ A sentence that issues a command ○ Can not be true or false ● Declarative sentence ○ A sentence that makes a claim ○ Can be true or false 1.2 sentences and propositions ● A declarative sentence expresses a proposition 1.3 sentence tokens and sentence types ● Type ○ A general pattern that can be exhibited by many different things ● Token ○ An individual thing that can exhibit a pattern ■ An individual giraffe is a token of a giraffe type ● I is a context sensitive. Refers to what it means, depends upon who speaks or writes it at the time of the sentence 1.4 consistency and nessibility Explicit and implicit inconsistency ● 2 sentences are consistent if they both can be true at the same time ● 2 sentences are inconsistent if they can’t both be true at the same time ● Explicitly inconsistent a negation a explicit denial a “not” attached to it ● Implicity inconsistent, not the explicit denial 1.4.2: contradictions and contraries ● Contradictory ○ If one is false, the other one must be true. Cant both be false ● Contrary ○ Even though they cannot both be true at the same time they can be false at the same time 1.4.3: possibility ● When we invoke definition using terms like “can”, “could”, “may”, “might” we are appealing to what is possible ● A proposition expresses a physical possibility if the state of affairs if comatible with the
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