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Chapter 1

Phil-XX1 - Chapter 1 Notes (Textbook + Lectures)

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PHIL 105

Chapter 1 TextbookLecturesPhilXX1Logiccritical thinking are tools that allow us to navigate the flow of information Critical thinking is Analyzing the meaning of information Checking information for accuracy and completeness Putting various pieces of information together in a coherent way Solving problems Questioning matters that dont make sense Marshalling relevant information evidence when it is needed to support some statement constructing arguments Recognizing and evaluating argumentsAvoiding fallacies1 Analyzing Meanings Can require evidence when the focus is on the information contained Evidence is not required for expressions of feeling questions or commands etc Pay attention to circumstance and context in which words are spoken 2 Recognizing Arguments and Evaluating Their Strengths Verbalphysical evidence each have their values and limitations in evaluating information 3 Recognizing and avoiding Fallacies Fallaciesmistakes in reasoningVulnerable to fallacies when we are influenced by desire fear greed and other strong emotions Nonevidential persuasionfallacy 4 Making decisions in light of available informationevidence Balancing the possible effects of our decisionsII Arguments and LogicSome but not all verbal evidence describes physical evidenceArguments are sets of sentences consisting of an assertion to be supported and the verbal evidence for that assertionArguing for a sentence is to offer verbal evidence to support itLogicthe field of study concerned with analyzing arguments and appraising their correctness or incorrectness Premise states evidence Conclusion sentence being argued for supported by premises1
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