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Chapter 8

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Russell Day

Chapter 8- Memory Memory –Introduction  What is memory? o Allow us to record and go back to the past memories and experiences that we had  Who is Henry Molaison? o Had most of his hippocampus and surrounding brain tissue surgically removed to reduce serve epileptic seizures o His operation succeeded, but he ended up with amnesia (memory loss) o He remembers his childhood, teens, and early 20’s o He forgot some of the events that happened 2 years before his surgery and is unable to create new memories o Leads us to the question:  Why was Henry able to remember how to perform new task, but when he encounters them, he says that he has never seen it before? Memory As Information Processing  Herman Ebbinghaus studied the rate at which new info is forgotten  Sir Francis Galton studied people’s memories for personal events  Encoding: o Giving information to the brain by translating it into a neutral code your brain processes o Ex: when you type on a keyboard, your keystrokes are translated into an electrical code so that the computer can understand it  Storage: o saved information during a period of time o Ex: saving a document  Retrieval: o Pull information out of storage o Ex: open file A Three-Component Model  If you read Henry Molaison your name and numbers, he can recall it for a short time , but he can’t form a lasting memory  William James suggested that there is one temporary memory and the other is more long lasting  Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a memory model  Memory model: o 3 components:  Sensory memory  Short-term or “working” memory  Long term memory The Memory model ( In Depth) • Stage 1:Sensory Memory • holds incoming sensory just long enough for it to be recognized • Composed of different subsystems called sensory registers • sensory registers: initial information processors • iconic store: visual sensory register • George Sperling: studied how long it stores info • difficult to get back complete information just from visual memory • Echoic store: auditory sensory register • studied by having participants listen to different set of numbers or letters • Stage 2: Short Term/ Working Memory • holds information that we are conscious of • also known as working memory because it consciously processes codes and "works on" information • Memory Codes: • once memory leaves the sensory memory it must be represented by a type of code • visual encoding: metal representations • phonological encoding: code by sound • semantic encoding: focus on meaning of stimulus • motor encoding: code by movement ( ex : play sports/ instruments) • memory codes usually doesn’t match the original stimulus • Ex: when you read the words, you usually us phonological codes ( saying the words silently to yourself) instead of having a mental representation • People are most likely to make mistakes when letters have the same sounding like getting a “V” mixed up with a “B” • Capacity and duration • Can only hold a limited amount of information at a time • People usually can only hold 5-9 items in short term memory • George Miller: “ the magical number seven, plus or minus two” is the formula for capacity limit • Chunking: combine individual items into larger units so it becomes easier to memorize • Ex: birckyaeuqsawaqti ( individual letters) • Read backwards : it was a squeaky crib ( group into words) • Result: easier to memorize • Lloyd and Margaret Peterson • Try to prove how fast short term memory can be gone and being able to rehearse the information makes short term memory last longer • Maintenance rehearsal: simple repetition of information • Elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of the information or relating it to other things we already know • • Putting short-term memory “to work” • Working memory  “ mental workplace” • Ex: librarian constantly putting books away • Alan Baddeley • 4 components • 1.) keep some info from the auditory working memory such as repeating phone numbers • 2.) temporarily store and manipulate images and info when forming mental maps  visuospatial working memory • 3.) episodic buffer which provides temporarily storage space where information from long term memory and from the phonological loop and / visuospatial subsystems • Example: “ how much is 87 +36?” you would have a mental representation while saying it softly. Also, in order to perform the rules of addition, it must be retrieved f
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