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Chapter 6

PSYC100 chapter 6 (unit 7) study guide.docx

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Russell Day

PSYCHOLOGY 100 Unit 7 (chapter 6) – Consciousness, Sleeping, Dreaming, Hypnosis, Drugs Study Guide State of consciousness – a subjective experience and how someone experiences external & internal events Altered state of consciousness – variations from our normal waking state Consciousness  our awareness of the present moment of ourselves and environment.  Subjective and private (no one else knows what reality is for you)  Dynamic, constantly changing  Our perception is selective  Self reflective, only aware of self States of consciousness  Focussed  Unfocussed  Self reports allow insight into subject’s mind, but not verifiable  Physiological measures (EEG recordings) find correspondence between body and mind. Objective, no insight into subject’s subjective experience.  Behavioural measures (eg. Rouge test) are objective, however one must infer the subject’s state of mind Controlled vs. automatic processing  Controlled (effortful) processing is the voluntary use of attention & effort (eg. Planning a vacation, studying)  Open to change, more flexible  Automatic processing involves little/no conscious effort (eg. eating, driving, typing)  Disadvantage: decreased chance of finding new solutions to problems; less flexible  Advantage: less time consuming, less mental exertion  Divided attention – multitasking  Advantage: do >1 thing w/o overwhelming mental capacity  Disadvantage: difficult to do tasks requiring the same mental processes (doing two similar things at the same time)  Multitasking in some situations (driving & talking on the phone) result in serious consequences The Emotional Unconscious  Unconscious processes can have an effect on your mood (eg. Feeling upset for no reason, possibly influenced by something in your environment) The Modular Mind  Theories propose that the mind is a single entity, rather, it’s a collection of separate but interacting modules Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythm: daily biological cycles, regulated by (SCN) suprachiasmatic nuclei, located in the hypothalamus  SCN neurons link to the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, which makes the body relaxed  SCN neurons become active in the day and inactive at night, allowing melatonin levels to increase and decrease accordingly  Circadian clock biological, but influenced by day-night schedule o Subjects who sleep without a schedule tend to sleep and wake up later, gradually going to bed at noon and waking up at midnight o Because of this, blind people can suffer from insomnia and daytime fatigue Early Bird/Night Owl o Morning people’s body temperature, BP, and alertness peak early in the day; common among older adults o Same thing applies to nigh people, except later in the day Environmental disruptions of circadian rhythms  SAD (seasonal affective disorder) makes people psychologically depressed during the winter/fall months because of shorter periods of daylight  Jet lag is caused by flying across several time zones in one day o Causes insomnia, decreased alertness, poor performance until body adjusts o Body adjusts one hour or less per day o People adjust faster when flying west, because it lengthens the travel day  Daylight savings timg  Night shiftwork o Can cause accidents and job performance errors as our bodies are programmed to be tired in the early morning o Since its easier to extend the waking day than to compress it, some schedules take advantage of “rotating shiftwork” Sleep  Spend 1/3 of our lives asleep  Every 90 minutes of sleep, we go through different cycles  EEG recordings show beta wave patterns when you are awake (15-30 cycles/sec)  Alpha waves appear when you are relaxed and drowsy (8-12 cycles/sec) Stages of sleep Stage 1-4: 1) slow theta waves increase, and you enter a light sleep. A few minutes or less will be spent in stage 1. Images and body jerks can be experienced. 2) sleep spindles (periodic 1-2 sec bursts of brain-wave activity) indicate the 2 stage. Breathing and muscles relaxed, harder to awaken. 3) slow and large delta waves (0.5-2 cycles/sec). Said delta waves will appear more frequently. Referred to as slow wave sleep. 4) When delta waves dominate EEG. Referred to as slow wave sleep. After 20-30 min of this stage, you go back to stage 3 and 2. After 1-1.5 hrs of sleep, these stages will have been completed : 1-2-3-4-3-2. REM sleep  Rapid eye movements occur every half minute. Eyeballs move vigorously beneath closed eyelids. Dreams are always reported when subjects are awoken from REM sleep.  Physiological arousal can increase to daytime levels  Heart rate & breathing quickens, brain-wave activity resembles wakefulness  Men get erections and women get vaginal lubrication, however genital arousal isn’t always a response to sexual imagery  Muscles become relaxed and twitch. Because your body is aroused, yet your muscles are relaxed, REM sleep paralysis is also called paradoxical sleep.  REM dreams are vivid and realistic, compared to non-REM dreams.  Non-REM dreams are referred to as sleep thoughts as they resemble daytime thoughts, although jumbled4REM periods become longer as the hours pass Age differences  Newborns sleep 16 hours a day, almost half their sleep time is REM  15-24 year olds sleep 8.5 hours a day  Elderly people get under 6  REM decreases during infancy and early childhood, but remains stable afterwards  Time spent in 3 & 4 declines; by late adulthood, little slow wave sleep occurs  Men in Canada sleep 8 hours a day, while women get 8.2 (on average)  15% of Canadians 15years+ get <6.5 hours a night Sleep deprivation  Short-term sleep deprivation (45 hours of no sleep)  Long-term sleep deprivation (45+ hours of no sleep)  Partial deprivation (no more than 5 hours of sleep for one or more nights)  All 3 types had a negative effect on their mood, cognitive and then physical performance Restoration model: sleep recharges our bodies and we recover physically and mentally. Evolutionary/circadian sleep models state that we sleep to improve our chances of survival. Each species developed over time a circadian sleep-wake patter that adapted to the patterns of predators and prey. Sleep disorders: Insomnia  chronic difficulty falling/staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep. Trouble falling asleep is common among young people while staying asleep is hard for older adults.  Most common sleep disorder (10-40% of the population)  Pseudoinsomniacs complain of a lack of sleep, when they actually get sufficient sleep  Caused by a genetic predisposition, medical problems, anxiety, depression, drugs, stress, poor lifestyle habits, and circadian disruptions  Stimulus control conditions the body to associate stimuli in your sleeping environment (bed) with sleep. Is a non-drug treatment. Narcolepsy  Difficulty staying awake  Patients can fall asleep uncontrollably and suddenly, no matter how much sleep they get  Can also experience cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by laughter, excitement, and strong emotions.  Sufferers can be discriminated against and called lazy; can be accident prone  Genetic predisposition, some environmental factors REM sleep behaviour disorder  Loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM sleep paralysis is absent  Causes people to act out dreams  Causes unknown Sleepwalking  Occurs in stage 3 or 4  No memory of event  Blank stares, unresponsive to others, although they seem conscious of environment as they move around  Can be inherited, or caused by daytime stress, alcohol, illnesses, medications Night terrors  More intense than nightmares, which occur during REM sleep  Children suffer from it more often than adults  Will sit up, seemingly awake, and scream  May run out of bed or to another room, but the person will not remember it  Stage 3 and 4 Dreams  We dream more during REM sleep as our brains are more active  Women dream almost equally about male & females, whereas 2/3 of men dream of other men  Dreams shaped by experiences and concerns Why do we dream? Different theories and perspectives Freud’s psychoanalytical theory...  Wish fulfillment/unconscious needs & desires that are too unacceptable in real life  Manifest content (“surface” story) and latent content (hidden meaning)  Theory criticized for lack of evidence, & dream interpretation is subjective Activation-synthesis theory...  Physiological theory proposes that brain is trying to make sense of “random” neural activity by creating a dream that “best fits” random sensory input, based on our memories and experiences.  During REM sleep, brain is bombarded with random neural activity, so the cerebral cortex keeps interpreting them  Ignores the fact that non-REM sleep dreams occur too Cognitive approach...  Allow us to creatively problem solve in our sleep, as the limits of reality are removed  Depressed people going through divorce are more successful at coping with depression  Cognitive-process dream theories focus on the process of how we dream  Dreams are bizarre because the content shifts rapidly Toward integration  Concepts from cognitive, biological, and modern psychoanalytical theories combined Review:  EEG measurements can read 5 sleep stages: 1 & 2 – lighter sleep 3 & 4 – deeper sleep, slow-wave 5 – REM sleep, high physiological arousal, rapid eye movements  Amount of sleep changes as we age. Also affected by genetics, environment, psychological factors  Sleep deprivation negatively affects mood, mental & physical performance because we sleep to recover from fatigue  Evolutionary/circadian models state that species evolved certain cycles to survive  Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder, while narcolepsy isn’t  Dreams occur in all stages, but most common in REM  Gender differences in dreams exist  Dreams affected by background, current issues, recent events  3 different theories as to why we dream: o Freud thought dreams were about suppressed desires o Activation-synthesis theory stated that dreams were purely the result of physiological causes, and that they were the brain’s creation and interpretation from “random” neural activity o Cognitive-process theory stated that BOTH dreams & waking thought came from the same mental systems Dreams & Drugs  Drugs alter brain chemistry by entering bloodstream and are carried throughout the brain by capillaries  Blood-brain barriers in capillaries don’t succeed in screening out all foreign substances so drugs still g
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